Generic Name: Diphenhydramine HCL
Trade Name: Benadryl
1. Antiemetic in dogs and cats when vomiting due to motion sickness or inner ear problems; blocks vomiting at the CRTZ (chemoreceptor trigger zone); Medulla; Histamine (H-1 receptor).
2. Can be used cautiously when pregnant and not near term (Class B); is excreted in milk.
3. Antihistamines have a sedative quality.
Use with caution in patients with hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, angle closure glaucoma; May cause paradoxical excitement in Cats.
Generic Name: Diazepam
Trade Name: Valium, Diastat
Use: Appetite stimulant
1. Produces transient appetite stimulation in Cats when given IV; eating may begin in a few seconds; Baseline liver function test recommended; May exhibit behavior changes (irritability, depression, etc.)
2. Appetite stimulant for horses; offer food immediately after dose; keep loud noises and distractions to a minimum. If effective, only 2-3 Tx in 24-48 hr period required; Observe carefully! Doses > .2 may cause recumbency.
3. Appetite stimulant for goats; offer food immediately; duration may last up to 45 min.
Inject IV slowly; may cause significant thrombophlebitis; prepare to administer cardiovascular or respiratory support if given IV.
Generic Name: Maropitant citrate
Trade Name: Cerenia
Classification: Neurokinin (NK1) Receptor Antagonist Antiemetic
1. Blocks the binding of substance P (a neurotransmitter involved in vomiting; brainstem) to NK-1 receptors in the CRTZ (chemoreceptor trigger zone).
2. Suppresses both peripheral & centrally mediated emesis.
3. Well tolerated in dogs; tolerance confirmed up to 3 x's recommended oral (8mg/kg). Can be used in cats extra-label, but no information to support tolerance.
Use caution if given with other medication that are highly protein bound; Pre-travel vomiting and hypersalivation can occur; Feeding small meal or snack 1 hr before admin of tablets can help. Do not tightly wrap or embed tablet in food as this may delay dissolution.
Generic Name: Metronidazole
Trade Name: Flagyl
Classification: Antibiotic, Antiparasitic
Use: Antibiotic, Antiparasitic
1. Used extensively in Tx of Giardia (cats/dogs) and other parasites (Trichomonas, Balantidium coli). Entamoeba histolytica, trophozite form.
2. Tx of anaerobic infections in dogs, cats and horses (Bacteroides spp., Veillonellla, Fusobacterium, Clostridium spp., Peptococcus, and Peptostreptococcus).
Prohibited for use in food animals by FDA. Do not use in nursing or pregnant animals. Use caution with hepatic dysfunction; Tablets have unpleasant taste; Neurolgoic disorders, lethargy, GI effects, etc.
Entamoeba histolytica: http://www.umanitoba.ca/science/zoology/faculty/dick/z346/entahome.html
Generic Name: Prednisone
Trade Name: Many
1. Tx of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease; Characterized by increased numbers of lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, or eosinophils in the intestinal wall.
2. Increases the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin and trypsin. Alter the structure of mucin and decrease mucosal cell proliferation.
3. Cats: Adjunctive therapy for small intestinal inflammatory bowel disease. (in addition to allergy diet, ie Hills Science Diet z/d)
Tapper off when discontinuing long term use. Can cause weight gain, polydipsia, polyuria, and elevated liver enzymes, etc.
Use prednisolone in place of prednisone when possible for cats; may not be able to absorb/convert prednisone as well as dogs.
Generic Name: Sucralfate
Trade Name: Carafate
1. Disaccharide, taken orally, forms a paste-like substance in the stomach that binds to surfaces of gastric ulcers; Lasting up to 6 hrs.
2. Use prednisolone in place of prednisone when possible for cats; may not be able to absorb/convert prednisone as well as dogs.
3. Can be used for Tx of oral, esophageal, gastric and duodenal ulcers.
Constipation is the main concern; use with caution in patients with decreased intestinal transit times. May impair oral absorption of some medications, see Plumb's.
Generic Name: Praziquantel (pyrantel pamoate, febantel)
Trade Name: Drontal Plus
Classification: Anticestodal, Antiparasitic
Use: Antiparasitic (symptoms diarrhea, vomitting)
1. A single dose is usually effective, but measures should be taken to prevent reinfection.
2. Rapidly and nearly completely absorbed after oral administration and distributed throughout the body.
3. Works by affecting the parasite; imparing function of suckers and motility.
Can cause anorexia, vomiting and lethargy or diarrhea in dogs. Such effects are rare in cats.
Generic Name: Sulfadimethoxine
Trade Name: Albon
Classification: Sulfonamide Antimicrobial
Use: Tx Coccidia, Toxoplasma
1. Tx of coccidiosis (protozoa) in dogs, although not approved for this indication.
2. Tx poultry for coccidiosis, fowl cholera and infectious coryza by putting it in drinking water.
Contraindicated in patients with severe renal or hepatic impairment
Sulfa drugs affect some gram-pos bacteria (strains of streptococci, Bacillus annthracis, Clostridium tetani, C. perfringens and strains of Nocardia). Sulfas are less effacious in pus, necrotic tissue or in areas with extensive cellular debris.