Scottish mathematician. Gambler. Believed increase in paper-money supply would stimulate French economy. Established bank in Paris issued paper money. Organized a monopoly (Mississippi Company) on trading privileges with Louisiana in North America. Fled the country when gold payments halted.
monopoly on trading privileges with Louisiana in North America. Took over management of French national debt. Issued shares of its own stock in exchange for government bonds.
became chief minister of the French court in 1726. Last of the great clerics who loyally and effectively served the French monarchy. Realist understood the political ambition and incapacity of the nobility and worked quietly to block their undue influence. Aware of the precarious financial situation of the royal treasury. Determined to give the country a period of peace. Surrounded himself with able assistants who tried to solve France's financial problems. Could never draw sufficient tax revenues from the nobles or the church to put the state on a stable financial footing. Died having unsuccessfully attempted to prevent France from intervening in the war between Austria and Prussia. Failed to train Louis XV to become an effective monarch.
had most of the vices and almost none of the virtues of Louis XIV. Wanted absolute power, but too lazy to work for it. After Fleury, didn't choose many wise advisors. Not evil, just mediocre.
came to the throne in 1714, as designated by the Act of Settlement. Although militarily successful against the pretender, new dynasty and supporters saw need for consolidation.
first Hanoverian monarch in England. Challenge to his new title: Stuart pretender James Edward landed in Scotland in December 1715 > forces marched south, but met defeat less than two months later. Concern for French threats to his domains in Hanover > unsympathetic towards Tories' peace policy. Favored Whigs.
during her reign, there were sharp clashes between the political factions of Whigs and Tories over whether to end war with France.
emphasized a strong monarchy, low taxes for landowners, and firm support of the Anglican church. Urged rapid peace settlement and opened negotiations with France after 1710. Towards the end of Anne's reign, they feared that they would lose power under the waiting Hanoverian dynasty > opened channels of communication with the Stuart pretender.
supported monarchy, but wanted Parliament to retain final sovereignty. Favored urban commercial interests as well as the prosperity of the landowners. Encouraged religious toleration toward Protestant nonconformists in England. Sought favor from future George I.
previously active in House of Commons and was a cabinet minister. Management of British national debt assigned to South Sea Company > price of stock soared, then crashed in 1720 > under his leadership, Parliament intervened and adopted measures to honor the national debt. George I gave him his full confidence > often regarded as the 1st prime minister of England and the originator of the cabinet system of government. Generally demanded that all ministers in the cabinet agree on policy. Real sources of power: personal support of the king, his ability to handle the House of Commons, and his ironfisted control of government patronage. Quieta non movere > pursued peace abroad and supported status quo at home.
Swedish king. Headstrong, possibly insane. Great Northern War > lead vigorous and often brilliant campaign, but it eventually resulted in Sweden's defeat. Defeated the Russians at the Battle of Narva, but then turned south to invade Poland. Defeated at the Battle of Poltava > after that, Swedes could maintain only a holding action against their enemies. Sought refuge in Turkey and didn't return to Sweden until 1714. Killed while fighting Danes in Norway. After his death, Swedish nobles were determined to reassert power over the monarchy.
Great Northern War
Sweden vs. Russia. Russia began to drive to the west against Swedish territory. Russian goal = foothold on the Baltic. Russia emerged victories. Sweden exhausted its military and economic resources and lost monopoly on Baltic coast. Russia conquered large section of eastern Baltic. Prussia gained part of Pomerania.
John III Sobieski
lead Polish army to rescue Vienna from Turkish siege.
central legislative body. Included only nobles and specifically excluded representatives from corporate bodies.
staunch opposition of any single member could require body to disband.
majority ethnic group in Hungary. Mostly Calvinist. Nobility rebelled several times.
rallied domains to resist advances of Ottomans and aggression of Louis XIV. Achieved Ottoman recognition of his sovereignty over Hungary in 1699. Began suppression of Magyar rebellion. Conquered much of Balkan Peninsula and western Romania.
no male heir, only Maria Theresa. Created Pragmatic Sanction.
Prussia. Became Frederick the Great. Very military-minded. Upset Pragmatic Sanction, invaded Silesia, crystallized the Austrian-Prussian rivalry for control of Germany that would dominate central European affairs for over a century.
ruled Brandenburg since 1417. Through inheritance, acquired duchy of Cleves, countries of Mark and Ravensburg, duchy of east Prussia, duchy of Pomerania.
Frederick William, the Great Elector
1655-1660: Sweden and Poland engaged in war that endangered his holdings in Pomerania and Eastern Prussia > had neither the military nor the financial resources to confront the threat. 1655: Brandenburg estates wouldn't grant him taxes > took taxes by military force > used money to build up an army that allowed him to continue enforcing his will without the approval of the nobility. In exchange for obedience to Hohenzollerns, Junkers got the right to demand obedience from serfs. Tended to choose nobles as local administrators of the tax structure. Taxes fell most heavily on peasants and urban classes.
landed nobility in Prussia.
Frederick William I
most eccentric and one of the most effective Hohenzollerns. Political aims: consolidation of an obedient, compliant bureaucracy and the establishment of a bigger army. Kabinette government: lower officials submitted all relevant documents to him in his office > he examined the papers, made a decision, and issued order. Organized bureaucracy along military lines: united all departments under the General Directory, imposed taxes on nobility and changed most remaining feudal dues into monetary payments, sought to transform feudal and administrative loyalties into a sense of duty to the monarch as a political institution rather than a person. Army became 3rd or 4th largest army in Europe. Laws, customs, and royal attention made the officer corps the highest social class of the state. Army was a symbol of Prussian power and unity, not an instrument to be used for foreign adventures or aggression.
Ivan the Terrible
reign followed by civil war known as the "Time of Troubles."
1st in Romanov dynasty. Him and his 2 successors (Aleski and Theodore II) brought stability and modest bureaucratic centralization to Russia. Bureaucracy was still largely controlled by the boyars. Could barely suppress revolt of peasants and Cossacks under Razin.
old nobility in Russia. Still largely controlled the bureaucracy.
guards of the Moscow garrison. Helped Peter the Great ascend to the throne, but expected to be rewarded. During Peter's travel, they rebelled, but were suppressed upon the tsar's return.
Peter the Great
came to power on shoulders of the streltsy, who expected to be rewarded for their support. Violence and bloodshed surrounded his succession. His sister, Sophia, was named regent, but his followers overthrew her in 1689. Dangers and turmoil of his youth convinced him of two things: power of the tsar must be made secure from the jealousy of the boyars and the greed of the streltsy, and the military power of Russia must be increased. Fascinated by Northwestern Europe, particularly the military resources of the maritime powers > traveled abroad. During his trip, the streltsy had rebelled > on his return, he brutally suppressed the revolt. Introduced effective and ruthless policies of conscription. Adopted policies for the officer corps and general military discipline patterned on those of west European armies. Tried to westernize Russia > demanded that the boyars shave their beards. Gradually stopped granting boyar status to new individuals. Made many major decisions in both foreign and domestic policy without consulting the boyars. Faced considerable opposition from factions of the court nobility. Never was able to fully dominate the nobility, but became highly skilled at balancing one group off against another while never completely excluding any. Built a real Russian navy > creation of a navy was one part of his strategy to secure warm-water ports that would allow Russia to trade with the West and to influence European affairs. Made St. Petersburg the new capitol.
Peace of Nystad
confirmed the Russian conquest of Estonia, Livonia, and part of Finland when the Great Northern War came to a close. Henceforth, Russia possessed ice-free ports and a permanent influence on European affairs.
Treaty of Utrecht
British received thirty-year asiento to furnish slaves to Spanish. Britain gained right to send one ship each year to the trading fair and Portabello (major Caribbean seaport on Panamanian coast). Both privileges allowed British traders and smugglers potential in-roads into the Spanish market.
War of Jenkins's Ear
Britain vs. Spain. Spain attempted to tighten its monopoly, English smugglers/shippers/pirates tried to pierce it. 1731>fight between Spanish and English during a boarding operation > Spaniards cut off captain Robert Jenkins's ear > Jenkins shoed ear to Parliament > British merchant and W. Indies interests pressured Parliament to relieve Spanish intervention in their trade > Walpole couldn't resist pressures > Britain went to war with Spain.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
ended War of the Austrian Succession. Prussia retained Silesia, Spain renewed asiento agreement with Britain.
Convention of Westminster
Prussia and Britain. Defensive alliance to prevent entry of foreign troops into the Germanies. Britain, long-time ally of Austria, joined forces with Austrian enemy.
dramatic shift in alliances (Prussia + Britain, France + Austria)
Seven Years' War
Frederick II invaded Saxony, France and Austria formed an alliance against Prussia > eventually joined by Sweden, Russia, many smaller German states. 2 factors (in addition to Fred's stubborn leadership) saved Prussia: Britain furnished considerable financial aid, and (with the death of Elizabeth of Russia) Peter III made peace with Prussia (admired Fred).
big ego, administrative genius. Became secretary of state in charge of war > pumped huge financial subsidies into coffers of Fred II. Regarded German conflict as a way to divert French resources and attention away from colonial struggle. Wanted all of North America east of Mississippi for Britain. Achieved unprecedented cooperation with American colonies.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
George III and Pitt quarreled over policy, and Pitt left, replaced by earl of Brute, who was responsible for the peace settlement. Britain received all of Canada, the Ohio River valley, and the eastern half of the Mississippi River valley. Britain returned Pondicherry and Chandernagore in India and the West Indian sugar islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique to the France.
Sugar and Stamp Act
put taxes on sugar and stamps in colonies. British considered them to be legal because the decision to collect them had been approved by Parliament.
said that Parliament had the power to legislate for the colonies.
Charles Townshend led Parliament to pass a series of revenue acts relating to colonial imports. Colonists resisted, and the ministry sent over its own customs agents to administer the laws. After "Boston Massacre," Parliament repealed all Townshend acts except for tax on tea.
closed the port of Boston, reorganized the government of Massachusetts, allowed troops to be quartered in private homes, removed the trials of royal customs officials to England.
extended boundaries of Quebec to include the Ohio River Valley. Americans viewed the Quebec Act as an attempt to prevent the extension of their mode of self-government westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
concluded the Revolutionary war, American colonies established independence.
believed a few powerful Whig families and the ministries they controlled had bullied and dominated his two immediate royal predecessors. Also believed that he should have ministers of his own choice and Parliament should function under royal rather than aristocratic management.