Cell Division

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Previously existing

the cells that make up each organism arise from ______ cells

mitosis

the forming of 2 identical cells from the division of a single cell

grow and maintain

all cells ____&_____ themselves

chromosomes

the carriers of genetic info

DNA

long molocule that carries all the genetic info

no

is there stopping & starting between the stages of mitosis?

telophase

last stage of mitosis

mitosis

basis for cloning

overload

when a cell cannot meet its demands due to its size

ratio of surface area to volume

what causes a cell to divide?

volume

increases faster than surface area

divide

what a cell does before it becomes too big

dna replication

what happens before a cell divides

grow

reason1 why a cell divides

replace damaged cells

reason2 why a cell divides

histone

protein that along with DNA makes up chromosomes

chromatin

long and intertwined chromosomes

chromatid

single strand of a double stranded chromosome

centromere

holds chromatids together

division

the only time chromosomes can be seen

mitosis

deals with all cells except gametes

gametes

sex cells

diploid

2n

full chromosome #

diploid

interphase

stage a cell spends most of its life in

G1

phase of cell growth and normal cell function

s

phase of DNA replication

G2

phase when things required for cell division are built

M

mitosis and cytokinesis

interphase

nuclear membrane and nucleolus are both present. chromatin is present

prophase

nuclear membrane and nucleolus disapear

lysosomes

digest nuclear membrane and nucleolus

histone protein

what dna wraps around to from chromosomes form chromatin

aster

centrioles with astral rays

polar fibers

fibers formed from aster to aster

kinetochore

fibers formed from aster to the middle of the cell

traction

another name for kinetochore

spindle

entire structure formed during prophase

metaphase

chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

centromere

the part of the chromosome where the traction fibers attach

anaphase

centromere splits single stranded chromosomes move to the sides of the cell

telophase

spindle disapears

animal cell

during cytokinesis, the type of cell that pinches apart

plant cell

during cytokinesis, the type of cell that divides by the formation of a cell plate

asexual

reproduction in which the parent is cloned

binary fission

taking a unicellular organism and splitting it in 1/2

bacteria

example of binary fission

budding

a lump of tissue forms on the side of the parent and continues to grow until fully developed and either stays attached or splits off

sponges coral and anenome

example of budding

spore formation

spore is released from parent, becomes airborn, and eventually diosits and develpos into cell organism.

spore formation

how all fungi reproduce

mold mushroom and ringworm

examples of spore formation

vegetative propagation

cloning of plants

runners on strawberry plants and potatoes w/ eyes

examples of vegetative propagation

meiosis

cell division that produces gametes

haploid

1n

gametogenesis

process of creating gametes

spermatogenesis

process of creating sperm cells

oogenesis

process of creating ovum cells

spermatids

develop into sperm cells

4

number of spermatids at the end of spermatogenesis

1

number of ovum at the end of oogenesis

egg

another name for ovum

second polar bodies

other three things left after oogenesis

die

what the second polar bodies do

telophase II

last phase of meisosis

telophase I

middle phase of meiosis

cleavage

The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane;

Cleavage furrow

the first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface

genetic variation

perk of sexual reproduction

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