An ancient study of chemistry that also included philosophy, mysticism, and ritual and was often associated with occult practices and efforts to change base materials into gold or discover elixirs of youth.
A unique symbol used to represent an element, consisting of one or two letters derived from the element's current or Latin name.
Describing an element that naturally occurs as a single atom or any particle consisting of a single atom.
Describing an element that naturally occurs as two identical, bonded atoms or any particle consisting of two atoms.
periodic table of the elements
A table of the chemical elements that is arranged to display their periodic properties in relation to their atomic numbers.
periodic law of the elements
The principle that the properties of the elements vary with their atomic numbers in a periodic way.
An element that is typically dense, solid, ductile, malleable, highly conductive, and chemically active, especially in the presence of nonmetal elements.
A property that describes the quality of light reflected by a substance by referring to common materials having similar reflective properties.
Able to be easily deformed by hammering or cold rolling.
Able to be easily drawn into wire or otherwise deformed by stretching.
An element that typically has four or more valence electrons and does not exhibit the properties of metals.
An element that is neither a metal nor a nonmetal that can display some characteristics of either under certain conditions.
Same as metalloid.
A group of elements having the same valence electron structure and often similar chemical properties; elements residing in a column on the periodic table.
A column of elements on the periodic table, identified by a group number and A or B or just a number in the IUPAC form of the periodic table.
An element in Group 1A of the periodic table; a strongly reactive metal with an oxidation number of +1.
An element in Group 2A of th pereiodic table; a very reactive metal having an oxidation of +2.
A mixture of metals that can be heterogeneous or homogeneous.
Any of the metallic elements in the middle of the periodic table in the B subgroups.
Group 4A of the periodic table; elements of variable activity typically with an oxidation number of ±4.
Group 5A of the periodic table; a highly variable group of elements, several of which have as many as eight different oxidation numbers.
Group 6A of the periodic table. Most elements in this family have an oxidation number of -2.
Group 7A of the periodic table; a very reactive group of elements typically with an oxidation number of -1.
An element in Group 8A of the periodic table; an essentially inert, monatomic gas with an oxidation number of 0.
inner transition element
Any member of the two rows of metallic elements normally placed below the periodic table, which typically have an oxidation number of +2.
A horizontal row in the periodic table of the elements.
Same as period; a horizontal row in the periodic table of the elements.
electron dot notation
A chemical symbol representing the valence electrons of an atom.