MCAT Hormones

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tropic hormones

stimulate or inhibit other endocrine glands

corticosteroids

endocrine hormones secreted in the adrenal cortex. Four classed include: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, anabolic hormones, and sex hormones

aldosterone

mineralocorticoid, secreted in the adrenal cortex, acts on distal convoluted tubule of kidney to promote sodium-potassium exchange

3 effects of aldosterone

1. to increase urinary excretion of potassium 2.to increase interstitial sodium concentration 3. to increase water conservation

4 effects of glucocorticoid hormones

1. increase blood glucose levels 2. strengthen cardiac muscle contractions 3. increase water retention 4. anti-inflammatory and antiallergic activities

catecholamines

secreted in the adrenal medulla, epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) act all over the body increase heart rate, raise blood pressure and increase alertness

thyroxine (thyroid hormone, T4)

synthesized in the follicles of the thyroid gland, four atoms of iodine

triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone, T3)

synthesized in the follicles of the thyroid gland, three atoms of iodine

thyroid hormone effects

increase in metabolism, stimulates increased oxygen demand, heat production, and growth and development

Hypothyroidism

inadequate production of thyroid hormone (often patients are overweight and slowed down, physically and mentally)

goiter

result of insufficient supply of iodine, excessive growth of thyroid on anterior of neck stimulated by feedback mechanism

calcitonin

produced in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid, reduces blood calcium concentration and inhibits the normal process of bone resorption

parathyroid hormone

produced in parathyroid glands in responce to low blood calcium, increases bone resorption and consequent calcium release, increases intestinal calcium uptake, and promotes calcium reuptake at the kidney

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

secreted in the anterior pituitary, stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone

thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)

secreted in the hypothalamus, acts on pituitary to release TSH

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

secreated in anterior pituitary, controls secretion of glucocorticoids, specifically cortisol in the adrenal cortex

corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

released by hypothalamus, stimulates the pituitary to secrete ACTH

growth hormone (GH)

secreted in the anterior pituitary, stimulates the development of skeletal muscle, bone, and organs in children, also called somatotropin (STH)

prolactin

secreted in the anterior pituitary, stimulates breast development and milk production

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

synthesized in hypothalamus and stored by the posterior pituitary, acts on kidneys, also called vasopressin

oxytocin

synthesized in hypothalamus and stored by posterior pituitary , released at childbirth

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

secreted by the anterior pituitary, stimulates the growth of one follicle containing several ova

luteinizing hormone (LH)

secreted by the anterior pituitary, stimulates the growth follicle, surge causes ovulation

corpus luteum

ruptured follicle after ovulation, secretes estrogen and progesterone

progesterone

promotes rapid thickening and vascularization of the uterine lining

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

secreted from developing placenta, stimulated corpus luteum to continue to secrete estrogen and progesterone

interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)

name for luteinizing hormone in mature males, stimulates seminiferous tubules to secrete testosterone

testosterone

predominantly male sex hormone, not plentiful until puberty, promotes spermatogenesis, deepening of the voice, growth of facial, axillary, and pubic hair, and enlargement of penis and scrotum

spermatogenesis

the division of spermatogonia within the seminiferous tubules

estrogen

secreted in the follicle, prevents maturation of more than one follicle at a time

insulin

secreted by islets, increases cellular uptake of glucose, promotes formation of glycogen from glucose in liver, reduces glucose concentration in the blood

glucagon

secreted by islets, promotes the breakdown of glycogen in the liver through gluconeogenesis, increases glucose concentrations in the blood

hyperglycemia

excessively high levels of glucose in the blood

hypoglycemia

excessively low levels of glucose in the blood

glycogen

a long carbohydrate polymer that serves a storage form of glucose

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