begins with a specific molecule which is then altered in a series of defined steps resulting in a certain product.
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones.
the study of how energy flows through living organisms.
relative motion of objects.
capacity to cause change.
kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules.
energy that is not kinetic, energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure.
refers to the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction.
the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter.
first law of thermodynamics
the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes.
second law of thermodynamics
a law stating that mechanical work can be derived from a body only when that body interacts with another at a lower temperature.
portion of a systems energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
the pushing of endergonic reactions which would not occur spontaneously.
the pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement.
the contraction of muscle cells and the movement of chromosomes during cellular reproduction.
the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one.
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work.
Referring to a molecule that has been the recipient of a phosphate group.
macromolecule that acts as a catalyst which is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur.
the reactant an enzyme reacts on.
the enzyme binds to the substrate and forms this.
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
nonprotein helpers needed by enzymes.
a small molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes.
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
The binding of a regulatory molecule to a protein at one site that affects the function of the protein at a different site.
A kind of allosteric regulation whereby a shape change in one subunit of a protein caused by substrate binding is transmitted to all the others, facilitating binding of subsequent substrate molecules.
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.