Template Matching Theory
-The comparison of a picture or other data w/a stored program or template, for purposes of identification and inspection.
-A holistic match to stored representation (ex. barcode). Also, idea in our head of what something looks like, then when you look @ something, you match it up w/what's in your head.
-Relatively inflexible system
-Mismatches based on size, orientation, etc.
-Too much variety- violates cognitive economy.
-stands for the need to manage one's mental resources, including time, effort and specific processing tools.
-performance will suffer if one seeks to perform tasks (or combos of tasks) that demand more resources than are available, and this leads people to use a variety of cognitive shortcuts.
Feature Analysis Theory
-process that whole bits of sensory info. are matched to its individual small units that are held in our LTM.
-1)Stimuli are broken into component lines
-2)Similar patterns distinguished from each other on basis of distinctive features (e.g. P vs. R)
-3) Letters presented @ rapid rates often confused w/similar letters (Kinney et al., 1966)
-4) Neisser's Search for Z: RT longer for letter matrix w/similar features (ex. R & P)
-5) Pre-kindergartners trianed to distinguish similar letters (Y-V, G-C, Q-O, M-N, C-X) performed best if distinctive feature was in RED. Dot highlights spatial relations.
-6) Adults asked to make same-different judgements take longer w/similar letters (if letters are similar, longer ID time; if letters are dissimilar, easier distinction & faster response)
-7) Neuropsychological evidence from Hubel & Wiesel: Feature Detectors (simple cells)
certain words that, with the proper grammar, constitute a universal language.
feature detectors (simple cells)
-neurons in the visual cortex that receive visual info. and respond to certain features, such as lines, angles, movements, etc.
-when the visual info. changes, the feature detector neurons will quiet down, to be replaced w/other, more responsive neurons.
-_______ ________ (______ ______) are sensitive to orientation (has to be a line @ a given orientation
-also sensitive to: part of the visual field (VF) in which it occurs
-also sensitive to: size
-def from quizlet: The portion of the visual field in which the presentation of visual stimuli will produce an alteration in the firing rate of a particular neuron
-def from lecture: (of a sensory neuron) a region of space in which the presence of a stimulus will alter the firing of that neuron.
-includes on and off center cells
on center cells
-part of the functioning of the receptive field.
-*if a cell falls directly on the center of the receptive field for that neuron, it will fire optimally
off center cells
-part of the functioning of the receptive field
-*will fire when something is off center (not much firing)
(same as feature detectors)
-Cells found in the V1 which have fixed excitatory zones in their receptor field ( respond to mostly horizontal and vertical bars of light).
(sensitive to line orientation & movement)
-like _____ ______s, they will respond primarily to oriented edges & gratings; however, their receptive field cannot be mapped into fixed excitatory & inhibitory zones.
-BUT will respond to patterns of light in a certain orientation w/in a large receptive field, regardless of the exact location.
-Some ______ ______s respond optimally only to movement in a certain direction.
-Discovered by Wiesel & Hubel.
-simple cells feed on them (ex: our visual system is breaking objects down for us to view them, although we process the whole thing.)
(Hubel & Wiesel)
-cells in the visual cortex that exhibit end-stopping properties (inhibitory responses at each end): a cell's response increases as a stimulus expands to fill the receptive field.
-(and stopping is when a cell's response increases as a stimulus, for ex. a bar, expands maximally to fill the receptive field, and then responds less when the stimulus exceeds the size of the receptive field.)
-type of aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read
-also called "word blindness" or "visual aphasia"
-this, unlike dyslexia, refers to an acquired reading disability, where reading ability had previously been developed, usually occurring in adulthood conditions.
- quizlet def: Patients are unable to distinguish visual shapes and so have trouble recognizing, copying, or discriminating between different visual stimuli. Unlike patients suffering from associative agnosia, those with ___________ agnosia are unable to copy images. Also poor matching
-packet def: a visual disorder that renders a person unable to recognize objects
-distinction between shapes is difficult, although other vision aspects, such as the ability to see detail and color, remain intact.
-considered, b/c of the inability to ID simple shapes, as a problem in the early (from a young age) part of the visual processing system, unlike associative agnosia, which is caused by brain damage instead.
(aka face blindness)
-a disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while the ability to recognize other objects may be relatively intact.
-brain area usually associated: fusiform gyrus