Anatomy Chapter 5

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Epiphysis

Site of the spongy bone in the adult

Diaphysis

Site of the compact bone in the adult

Red marrow

Site of hematopoiesis in the adult

Diaphysis

Scientific name for bone shaft

Yellow marrow cavity

Site of fat storage in the adult

Epiphyseal plate

Site of longitudinal growth in a child

Parathyroid hormone

When blood calcium levels begin to drop below homeostatic levels, ______ is released, causing calcium to be released from bones.

Calcitonin

Mature bone cells, called _____, maintain bone in a viable state.

Atrophy

Disuse of such as that caused by paralysis or sever lack of exercise results in muscle and bone ____.

Osteocytes

Large tubercles and/or increased deposit of bony matrix at sites of ____.

Osteoblasts

Immature, or matrix-depositing, bone cells are referred to as ____.

Stress and/or tension

____ causes blood calcium to be deposited in bones as calcium salts.

Osteoclasts

Bone cells that liquefy bone matrix and release calcium to the blood are called _____.

Gravity

Our astronauts must do isometric exercises when in space because atrophy under conditions of weightlessness or lack of ____.

lungs; heart

The organs protected by the thoracic cage include the ____ and the ____.

true

Ribs 1 through 7 are called ___ ribs.

false

Ribs 8 through 12 are called ___ ribs.

floating

Ribs 11 and 12 are also called ___ ribs.

vertebral column; sternum

All ribs articulate posteriorly with the ____, and most connect anteriorly to the ___, either directly or indirectly.

inverted

The general shape of the thoracic cage is _____.

Simple fracture

Bone is broken cleanly; the ends do not penetrate the skin

Closed reduction

Nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone

Greenstick fracture

A break common in children; bone splinters, but break is incomplete

Compression fracture

A fracture in which the bone is crushed; common in the vertebral column

Compound fracture

A fracture in which the bone ends penetrate through the skin surface

Open

Surgical realignment of broken bone ends

Spiral fracture

A result of twisting forces

true

A hematoma usually forms at a fracture site.

true

Deprived of nutrition, osteocytes at the fracture site die.

phagocytes

Nonbony debris at the fracture site is removed by ___.

true

Growth of a new capillary supply into the region produces granulation tissue.

pariosteum

Osteoblasts from the ____ migrate to the fracture site.

true

The fibrocartilage callus is the first repair mass to splint the broken bone.

spongy

The bone callus is initially composed of compact bone.

synovial fluid

The lubricant that minimizes friction and abrasion of joint surfaces is ____.

articular cartilage

The resilient substance that keeps bone ends from crushing when compressed is ___.

Ligaments

___, which reinforce the fribrous capsule, help to prevent dislocation of the joint.

Synovial

All have a fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity

Fibrous

Joints between skull bones

Synovial

Hip, elbow, and knee

Synovial

All reinforced by ligaments

Synovial

Often contains a fluid-filled cushion

Cartilaginous

Child's long-bone growth plate made of hyaline cartilage

Synovial

Most joints of limbs

Synovial

Have the greatest mobility

true

In a sprain, the ligaments reinforcing a joint are excessively stretched or torn

osteoarthritis

Age-related erosion of articular cartilages and formation of painful bony spurs are characteristics of ____.

Acute

___ arthritis usually results from bacterial invasion.

true

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease.

gouty

High levels of uric acid in the blood may lead to ____.

rikits

A 'soft' bone condition in children, usually caused by a lack of calcium or vitamin D in the diet is called ___.

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