chapter 9 ids

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DeTocqueville's Democracy in America

Aristocrat's study of America. "General equality of condition among the people", wondering about fluidity of American society with the rise of industrialism

Reality of Jacksonian America

didn't create economic equality, didn't challenge slavery, assaulted Indians

Introduction of universal white male suffrage

changes first began in new states. Older states followed. Some resistance- Webster: "power follows property." New Massachusetts's constitution required every voter to be a taxpayer and that governor own considerable real estate. Property qualifications abolished in New York. Rhode Island was too conservative- Dorr rebellion started new gov't. Southern laws favored planters and older counties

"WHD" including Turner, Schlesinger, Hofstadter, and Saxton

Turner encouraged scholars to se Jacksonianism as product of democratic West/protest by frontier people. Schlesinger's Age of Jackson saw support from urban laborers in East- effort to control power of capitalist groups/modern reform effort. Hofstadter said Jackson was spokesman of rising entrepreneurs. Meyer argued Jackson and followers wanted restoration of agrarian, republic past. Benson emphasized role of region and ethnicity. Saxton points to contradiction between image of Jackson expanding democracy and reality of constricted rights for women, blacks, and Indians

Institutionalized party system

acceptance of idea of parties

Van Buren (& machine politics)

Van Buren led dissident political faction (Bucktails) against established political leadership. Argued only an institutionalized party could ensure genuine democracy

Democratic Party

anti-Jackson forces called themselves Whigs, Jackson's followers called themselves Democrats. Nation's oldest political party

"Era of Common Man"

America under Jackson, with suffrage for white males

Jackson

embraced theory of democracy offering equal protection and benefits to all white male citizens

Jacksonian Democracy - goals

equal protection and benefits to white male citizens, extended opportunities to West and South, subjugating African Americans and Indians

"Spoils system"

removed many federal officeholders and replaced them with his supporters. Established right of elected officials to appoint their followers to public office

National nominating conventions

Jackson believed congressional caucus was too elitist. National party conventions nominated candidates. Triumph for democracy

Calhoun

Jackson's vice president, championed nullification

Nullification theory

said states were final judges of whether laws were constitutional- ie South Carolina could hold a convention and declare Tariff of 1828 void within the state

"Kitchen Cabinet"

Jackson's unofficial circle of political allies

Webster-Hayne debate

Hayne said slowing down growth of West was a way for East to retain power, threatened that South and West could resist tyranny of Northeast. Webster challenged Hayne to debate about states rights versus national power Hayne defended theory of nullification. Webster gave famous "Second Reply". Jackson said Federal Union must be preserved, stopped supporting Calhoun

Nullification crisis

South Carolina summoned state convention to reply to 1828 and 1832 tariffs. Voted to nullify them and elected Hayne to governor. Jackson said nullification was treason and sent warship to Charleston. South Carohlina had no support.

"Force Bill"

authorized President to use military to see acts of Congress obeyed

Clay

newly elected to senate

Compromise Tariff (1833)

Clay averted crisis by compromise by which tariff would be gradually lowered by 1842.

Reasons for Indian removal

feared contact would produce endless conflict and violence. Wanted territory

Black Hawk War

last battle in 1831-32 between white settlers in Illinois and Sauk and Fox Indians under Black Hawk. Reoccupied vacant lands. Illinois state militia and federal troops were vicious. Black Hawk sent on tour of East

Five Civilized Tribes

Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw had settled agricultural societies with successful economies. Federal gov't tried to negotiate treaties to remove from lands

Cherokee court cases

Cherokees tried to stop white encroachments by appealing to Supreme Court. Marshall ruled in favor of tribe but couldn't enforce it

"Trail of Tears"

long, forced trek to Oklahoma in winter of 1838. Many deaths

Indian Territory

Oklahoma, place where the five tribes were to be moved to. Was safely distant from existing white settlements and consisted of land that most whites considered undesirable- edge of Great American Desert

Seminole War

minority of Seminoles under Osceola refused to leave and staged uprising in 1835. Dragged on for years, used runaway slaves. Gov't gave up after many deaths, killing of Osceola, and much money in 1842

Maysville Road veto

Jackson vetoed subsidy of proposed Maysville Road (Kentucky) in 1830. Said it was unconstitutional because it wasn't part of interstate commerce and was too extravagant

Bank War

Jackson wanted to combat federal power and aristocratic privilege of Bank of US

Biddle, Clay and Webster

Biddle was president of bank from 1823 on, Webster was bank's legal counsel and frequent borrower. Clay supported bank.

Soft v hard money

more currency in circulation unsupported by gold and silver vs gold and silver being only basis for money

Bank veto

Biddle applied to Congress in 1832 for a bill to renew bank's charter. Jackson vetoed. 1832 campaign centered on future of the Bank. Defeat for Clay and Biddle

Taney and removal of deposits

Jackson's friend and secretary of the treasury. Placed gov't deposits in state banks instead of US bank. Biddle wouldn't give in and financial conditions worsened. Eventually killed bank

"pet banks"

what Jackson's enemies called state banks

Taney Court and Jacksonian opportunity

new chief justice Taney modified Marshall's vigorous nationalism. Democracy was expansion of economic opportunity

Whig Party v Democratic Party programs

Democrats saw future of expanding economic and political opportunities for white males, with limited gov't and defense of Union. Whigs favored expanding power of federal gov't and consolidating economic system. Cautious about westward expansion, wanted industrial future.

"American System"

Clay's program for internal improvements and economic development

"Great Triumvirate"

Clay, Webster, and Calhoun

Treasury surplus (!!!)

Congress didn't want to reduce tariff- support grew for returning federal surplus to states. Passed distribution act requiring gov't to pay surplus funds to the states each year in loans.

Specie Circular

presidential order providing that gov't would only accept currency backed by gold or silver for payment for public lands. Produced financial panic

Panic of 1837

Hundreds of banks and businesses failed, unemployment grew, prices fell, public works projects failed. Lasted 5 years

Election of 1840

Whigs chose Harrison and Tyler. Democrats nominated Van Buren

Harrison ("Tippecanoe")

was actually aristocratic but portrayed as a log cabin dweller. Died of pneumonia soon after taking office

"Log Cabin Campaign"

both candidates portrayed as common people

Tyler

former dem who left party because of Jackson's programs/methods. Abolished independent treasury system, wouldn't support Clay's new Bank of US, vetoed internal improvement bills. Cabinet members all resigned. Prepared to join dems

Penny Press

cheap newspapers for common people

Webster-Ashburton

negotiations between Secretary of State Webster and Lord Ashburton of GB. Established firm northern boundary and gave US more territory. Protected trade routes. Popular in America

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