Began in 2350 BCE when Sargon - King of Akkad - began conquering Sumerian cities. The empire was the first to unite city-states under a single ruler and ruled for 200 years.
Among all the multitude of Egyptian deities, the Egypt god Amon-Re was considered to be the king of the gods. While most Egyptian gods were 'born' at various points in the history of the Egyptian nation and many floated in and out of popularity, the Egypt god Amon-Re appears to have been present in the mythology and culture of the Egyptian people almost from the very inception of this complex and mysterious nation.
good luck charms used by ancient Egyptians to keep away evil spirits and prevent injury.
Written by Confucius, or "The Master." Lists Confucius' great ideas on moral behavior.
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC and greatly affected Indian society.
known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to central Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire
Of or relating to Babylonia or Babylon or their people, culture, or language.An ancient empire of Mesopotamia in the Euphrates River valley. It flourished under Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar II but declined after 562 B.C. and fell to the Persians in 539.
Book of the Dead
a compilation of prayers, chants etc. from which the Egyptian would choose sections to be inscribed on the tomb wall of the deceased.
Book of Songs
The Oldest of the Five Classics, preserves 305 of the earliest Chinese poems. Poems deal with political themes, ritual, and romance. It it significant because it provides insight into what life was like during the Zhou Dynasty. It especially describes the low status of women during the period.
dangerous whitewater rapids. A series of these were located to the south of Egypt protecting it from water invasion from this direction.
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Coastal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
powerful urban center and the surrounding countryside cooperating for mutual defense.
a form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Urban growth during the agricultural revolution. It dealt with the migration from rural to urban areas.
Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
a language; people who speak it mainly live in Southern India and were probably pushed there by the Aryan invasions
a powerful family or group of rulers that maintains its position or power for some time
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
Epic of Gilgamesh
an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction.
Name given to crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretching from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world's oldest codes of law.
law of Mesopotamia applied to everyone, first set of written laws uniform (consistent) but not equal
First city found in the Indus Valley. Few artifacts were found and little could be deciphered about the culture that lived there. This name is also given to represent the entire Indus Valley Civilization.
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the Hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria
the falcon- He was the son of Isis and Osiris, shown with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The pharaohs were thought to represent Horus on earth.
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning "foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.
the perfect mother- She was the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus, the most famous family in Egyptian mythology.
system of labor where people do special jobs
Late Bronze Age
bronze=copper and tin/1550-1200 bce. period where most advanced metal-working made bronze artifacts
written set of laws
fine, light silt deposited by wind and water. It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China. Because loess soil is not compacted, easily worked, but it leaves the region vulnerable to earthquakes. (p.58)
the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
ancestry traces through your mother
king of upper Egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
A Neolithic people that started around 3000BC, supposedly the earliest people on the island of Crete. They were excellent sailors & traded w/ Egypt & the Fertile Crescent. Were conquered by mainland Greece.
Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system., One of the first settlements in India
seasonal winds crossing indian subcontinent and southeast Asia during summer brings rain
first Greek-speaking people; invaded Minoans; dominated Greek world 1400 B.C. to 1200 B.C.; sea traders; lived in separate city-states; invovled in Trojan War against Troy
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction.
cattle bones or tortoise shells on which Chinese priests would write questions and then interpret answers from the cracks that formed when the bones were heated (Shang)
paper made from the papyrus plant by cutting it in strips and pressing it flat
form of social organization in which the father rules the family or tribe, descent being traced through the father
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader
Picture symbols that were the earlier forms of written communication, each representing an object such as a tree or animal.
Stone that contained carved messages in hieroglyphics, Greek and demotic. Led to deciphering of hieroglyphics.
Family of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa. In antiquity these languages included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern member of the Semitic family is Arabic.
a person who acts as intermediary between the natural and supernatural worlds, using magic to cure illness, foretell the future, control spiritual forces, etc.
First Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They're best remembered for their art of bronze casting.
probably originally priest; transformed into corps of professional bureaucrats because of knowledge of writing during Zhou dynasty.
The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
when a civilization begins to decline and different systems (economic, social) start to decline and its normally aided by disaster. ex. Mohenjo-Daro
a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)
tax levied by a ruler; payment made by one nation to another in acknowledgment of submission; mark of respect (such as praise or gift); Ex. pay tribute to
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord -- in a military capacity
The first dynasty according to legend. There is no real evidence of its existence First Chinese dynasty whose ruler Yu developed flood control and irrigation projects along the along Yellow River; Huang He, 2,000 B.C.
development of iron in china - longest stable period in china, used Mandate of Heaven to conquer Shang.
a temple tower of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians, having the form of a terraced pyramid of successively receding stories