Intro to Computers

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Introduction to Computers (HD111), Lincoln Online, Criminal Justice Course

client

computer connected to a server

server

computer that controls access to the hardware and software on a network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information

operating system

set of computer instructions that controls the allocation of computer hardware

application programs

perform an application-related function such as word processing

service packs

updates containing fixes and enhancements to the operating system

user interface

combination of hardware and software used to communicate with and control computer

monitor

displays messages and provides information

user-friendly

refers to software easily used by individuals with limited training

graphical user interface/GUI

user interface displaying graphics as well as text when communicating with user

Welcome screen

shows names of all users on computer

mouse

pointing device used with Windows which may be attached to computer by cable or wirelessly

point

moving the mouse across flat surface until pointer rests on item of choice

click

press and release primary mouse button

computer

electronic collection of hardware components that function together as a system

information processing cycle

input, process, output, and storage

data

collection of unprocessed items

information

conveys meaning and is useful to one or more people

end user, computer users, users

people who use the computer directly or the information it provides

computer program or software

detailed set of instructions that tell the computer what to do

primary components of computer

input devices, processor, memory, output devices, storage devices, communication devices

system unit

case containing electronic components of computer used to process data

input device

any hardware component allowing user to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses

keyboard

input device containing keys pressed to enter data

stylus

small device using pressure instead of ink to write, draw, or make selections

touchpad

flat pointing device located near keyboard on notebook computers

motherboard

main circuit board of system unit

processor/CPU

interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer

control unit

interprets instructions

arithmetic/logic unit

performs logical and arithmetic processes

memory/RAM

electronic components temporarily storing instructions waiting to be executed by processor

kilobyte/K or KB

approximately 1,000 memory locations

megabyte/MB

approximately one million memory locations

gigabyte/GB

approximately one billion memory locations

memory location or byte

stores one character

output devices

makes information resulting from processing available for use

impact printer

prints by striking an inked ribbon against paper

nonimpact printer

forms characters by means other than striking ribbon against paper

photo paper

produces photo-quality pictures

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