Ichthy2

Created by djdevito 

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max O2 a fish can take up (VO2 max) - basal metabolic rate (VO2 standard)

metabolic scope

habitat selection, regulatory behaviors and seasonal migration

3 examples of behavioral thermoregulation (used by ectotherms)

Rete Mirabile

place between cutaneous and swimming muscles in endothermic fish where warm venus blood from swimming muscle and cold artery blood from gills come into close contact and countercurrent heat exchange warms artery blood as it moves towards inner fish

water conducts heat faster and has greater heat capacity

water vs. air. Why is it so much harder to thermoregulate in water?

gills cutaneous vessels rete mirabile muscle

what is the circulatory pattern for endothermic fish

enzymes function properly at certain ion concentrations

why is there a need for osmoregulation?

osmosis and diffusion

what are the 2 challanges in osmoregulation?

hypoosmotic

fish that lose water and gain salt.Blood osmolarity is less than that in water

hyperomotic

fish that gain water and loose salt. Blood osmolarity is greater than water

hyperosmotic

fish that are constantly flooded with water and are trying to gain salts

stenohaline

most fish are ________, bc they have limited osmoregulatory abilities

euryhaline

fish that can osmoregulate over a wide range of environmental salinities. Estuarine and diadromous species

osmol

mole of solute per L of water

hypoosmotic

osmoregulatory strategy for marine bony fish

hypoosmotic

salt elimination osmoreg. strategy

alpha

Cl cell type that excrete monovalent ions/elimiate salts from fish

hyperosmotic

freshwater bony fish osmoregulatory strategy

hyperosmotic

salt retention osmoreg. strategy

hagfish

the only known vertebrate osmoconformer

beta

Cl cells in freshwater bony fish that retain salt

TMAO

urea is converted to ____ that protects enzymes of elasmobranchs from high organic salt concentrations

rectal gland

highly vascular organ in elasmobranchs that actively transports NaCl from blood and carries to intestine

organic salts (mostly urea)

form of ions that makes elasmobranchs hyperosmotic

mechanoreception

1st (far field) sense to activate

mechanoreception

lateral line and ear work togeather to detect sound, vibration and displacement of water

lateral line

row of sensory pores that allows fish to detect low frequency vibrations

inner ear

aids in mechanoreception by detecting higher-frequency vibrations or sound

neuromasts

sensory hair cells. Ones that are randomly distributed around head are independent from canal system

cupula

portion of neuromast that is displaced by water and bends hair cells

Pars superior

portion of inner ear that contains utricle chamber that encloses lapillus otolith

utricle

chamber in inner ear that encloses otolith

lapillus otolith

part of inner ear that detects gravity

pars inferior

portion of inner ear that contains saccule and lagena chambers

sagitta and astericus

otoliths that detect sound

kinocilium

one large hair on each hair cell of inner ear that interacts with smaller hairs

sterocilia

smaller, numerous hairs on hair cell

stimulatory

deflection of sterocilia towards kinocilium are...

inhibitory

deflection of sterocilia away from kinocilium are ...

parallax

the bending of light in water

97.2

degree in which tressteral objects are compressed when viewing from underwater... "Snells window"

otolith

denser than body tissue so displaced less than body by sound vibrations

otolith

touch sterocilia on hair cells and trigger auditory nerve

cornea

part of eye in fishes that is very thin bc they have no need to bend light

pupil

gap in irus of fish eye

iris

controls the amount of light entering eye. can be adjusted in sharks

retna

contains photoreceptors/where vision occurs

adipose eyelid

fatty tissue in bony fish that encases eye and reduces drag

nictitating membrane

semi-opaque covering that can move up to protect cornea in some elasmobranchs

Rod

photoreceptor in retna that detects low light levels and is insensitive to color

Cone

photoreceptor in retna that detects bright light and color

red

cones that detect 600nm wavethength

green

cones that detect 530nm

blue

cones that detect 460nm

UV

cones that detect 380nm

nocturnal

species type that has high rod:cone ratios

diurnal

species tyope that has low rod:cone ratio

B cone

deep sea species (ex. hatchetfish 1000m) are most likely to have only ___________ photoreceptors

surface

species (like barracuda) that are most likely to have R G and B cone receptors

chemoreception

detection of dissolved chemicals in water

olfaction and gustation

2 seperate divisions of chemoreception

nare

olfaction receptor organ that is a blind nasal opening

olfactory rosette

highly folded, receptor rich portion of olfactory that recives water from nare

ampullary

electroreceptors in shallow canals filled with conductive gel that detect weak, low frequency signals emitted by prey

tuberous

active electroreceptors that are seen in fish that generate their own electrical feilds

tuberous

electroreceptors that are located in epidermal depressions and are sensitive to high frequency currents

jamming avoidance response (JAR)

adaptation in gymnotiform fishes that produce electric feilds to adopt non overlapping frequencies to avoid gamming of electrolocation signals

magnetoreception

sensing the earths magnetic feild, evidence for this in fish is behavioral

magnetite

iron oxide with magnetic properties that is biomineralized in skulls of tunas and salmon

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