Cell 1 Test

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test on 11.1.10

monomer

individual, small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers

polymer

large compound formed by many monomers

dehydration

process in which monomers are joined to form polymers
-when the monomers are joined, water is removed in the process

hydrolysis

process in which polymers are broken apart and separated into individual monomers
-when polymer is broken apart, water is added in the process

carbohydrate

compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; a polymer; used as main source of energy; also used for structural purposes

monosaccharide

single sugar molecules (monomer) such as glucose, fructose, galactose; (part of carbohydrate)

polysaccharide

large macromolecule formed from monosaccharide; used for structure/support (such as cellulose in cell walls); used for storage (such as plant starch and glycogen, or animal starch, which is used to store excess sugar); (part of carbohydrate)

disaccharide

2 subunits (2 monomers); galactose+glucose=lactose;
glucose+frucose=sucrose (table sugar)

lipid

compound made of carbon and hydrogen; fats, oils, waxes; not polymer; used for energy; storing energy; insulating; cushioning; in cell membranes; created by glycerol and fatty acids

phospholipid

make up a cell's membrame;
head-hydrophilic-loves water
tail-hydrophobid-doesn't interact w/ water, made of fat

protein

polymer; are important in virtually everything an organism does; made of amino acids- controls rate of reactions; regulates cell processes; form muscles/bones; transport substances into/out of cells; fight disease
ex. enzymes, hemoglobin(red blood cells), collagen(gives skin elasticity)

amino acid

monomer that makes up proteins; more than 20 types found in nature, identical, but formed in different combinations to make different proteins

nucleic acid

macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus; store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; polymer

RNA and DNA

only two types of nucleic acids:
ribonucleic acid
deoxyribonucleic acid

nucleotides

monomer that makes up nucleic acids; consists of 3 parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a nitogenous base; gained from food

cell

the basic unit of life

cell theory

1.all living things are composed of cells
2.cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things (or cells are the basic unit of life)
3.new cells are produced from preexisting cells

eukaryotes

cells that contain nuclei

prokaryotes

cells that do not contain nuclei

cell membrane

-plant, animal, bacterial
-proteins, phospholipids
-regulates what enters/exits the cell

cell wall

-plant, bacterial
-protein, cellulose
-provides support and protection for the cell

nuclear membrane

-plant, animal
-protein, phospholipid
-regulates what enters/exits the nucleus

nucleus

-plant, animal
-protein, phospholipid, DNA, RNA
-contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules

nucleolus

-plant, animal
-RNA, protein
-small, dense region in the nucleus in which the assembly of ribosomes begins

chloroplast

-plant, bacterial
-protein, chlorophyll, lipid
-capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis

mitochondria

-animal, plant
-protein, lipid
-convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds more convenient for the cell to use

Golgi apparatus

-animal, plant
-protein, phospholipid
-modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell

endoplasmic reticulum

-animal, plant
-protein, phospholipid
-lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell

ribosome

-plant, animal, bacterial
-proteins, RNA
-where proteins are assembled

vacuole

-animal, plant, some bacterial
-protein, phospholipid
-store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

cilia

-bacterial
-protein
-used for feeding and movement; hairlike projections

flagella

-bacterial
-protein
-whip-like structures used for movement

passive transport

molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration; no energy is required

diffusion

when molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, equilibrium is achieved when the concentrations are equal

active transport

molecule move from an area of low concentration to high concentration; energy is required

lipid bilayer

double-layered sheet that composes nearly all cell membranes

concentration

mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume

facilitated diffusion

diffusion in which particles that are too large to pass through the cell membrane pass through a protein (or a carrier, also called transport protein) instead; no energy required; transport proteins specific to the type of molecule they transport

endocytosis

active transport; process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane. pocket then breaks loose from the outer portion of the cell membrane and forms a vacuole in the cytoplasm; used to move large amounts into a cell; plant cell cannot do this

exocytosis

active transport; membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell; used to move large amounts out of a cell; plant cell cannot do this

phagocytosis

type of endocytosis; cell engulfs a food particle (a solid) by extending the cell membrane

pinocytosis

type of endocytosis; cell engulfs a liquid by pockets that form along a cell membrane, fill with liquid, and pinch off to form vacuoles within the cell

osmosis

passive diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane; diffusion of water from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution

solution

a combination of a solute and a solvent

solvent

a liquid that dissolves...

solute

a substance that gets dissolved by...

hypertonic

side with greater concentration of solutes

hypotonic

side with less concentration of solutes

isotonic

two solutions equal in strength

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