The horizontal movement of air relative to Earth's surface.
A predominately WE or EW wind flow.
A predominately SN or NS wind flow.
Light wind that flutters leaves.
Stronger Winds that last hours or days. Beach Winds. Local Winds.
Winds that last days or weeks. Hurricanes, Cyclones.
Winds that last weeks or months. Prevailing Westerlies ( mid lats), Trade winds (lower lats).
Newtons 1 law
An object stays at rest or in motion unless acted upon by another force. Law of Inertia.
Newtons 2 law
Things move faster when pushed harder. f=m X a
Newtons 3 law
For every action there is an equal or opposite reaction.
The resistance of motion between things that touch.
The measure of an object
Pressure Gradient Force
Drives air from areas of higher barometric pressure to areas of lower barometric pressure, causing winds. To the Right of the winds. Vertical and Horizontal PGFs. Horizontal= bathtub
the amount of pressure change occurring over a given horizontal distance
Lines connecting areas of equal pressure. More closely spaces isobars on a map indicate areas where the horizontal pressure gradient is strongest.
deflects a freely moving object to the right in the northern hemisphere. It only influences wind direction, never speed.
Coriolis Force magnitude
Proportional to the wind speed and latitude.
High surface winds in the N hemisphere
Move clockwise and out
High Surface winds in the S hem.
Move counter-clockwise and inward . The Coriolis force makes this opposite as the N. Hem.
Friction Layer winds. Friction reduces wind speed which reduces the coriolis force; the weaker c. force no longer balance the pgf and the wind blows across the isobars toward lower pressure.
Air sinks causing us to have clear skies. *
low level Surface convergence
Air piles up and you have rising motion, cooling the air and producing rainy or cloudy weather.
Mid Lat westerlies
Blow from S to W. 30-60 degrees.
East Trade Winds
Blow from NE to SW 30-0 degrees
South East Trade Winds
SE winds 0-30 degrees
Circulations resulting from changes in the air temp in which warm, less dense, air rises and cold, more dense, air sinks.
Air blows clockwise with Easterly winds in the poles.
At the equator trade winds from each hemisphere come together and converge into a low. Air rises, ans hits the top of the troposhere, a portion spreads n and s and then sinks. This air creates high pressure at 30 degrees n and s, making bad weather.
Land Sea breeze
winds that come from ocean breeze. Cool breeze coming from ocean in the morning. Evening breeze much warmer coming from land. The pressure gradient force helps create this wind because the land/ water temp differences.
Regional wind systems that change direction seasonally. India and SE Asia get effected. The water is warmer than the land in the in the winter, so the pressure is low over water, and high on land. In the summer, the pressure is high over the water, causing monsoons all summer.
Mountain and valley breezes
Warm, less dense, air rises upslope during the day. Cool dense air sinks down the mountain at night.
large scale winds. (Santa Ana) . Warm winds move down mountain slopes. The base of the mountain gets sinking wind that is warmer.
a huge volume of air - uniform in its temperature and humidity characteristics
air mass advection
movement of an air mass (and thus its properties of temp & moisture) in the horizontal from one location to another
continental arctic (cA)
very cold & dry
continental polar (cP)
cold & dry
continental tropical (cT)
hot & dry
maritime polar (mP)
cool & moist
maritime tropical (mT)
warm & moist
Air being forced up a mountain.
A cooler & moist air mass moves over a warmer land area -heating from the land causes the air to rise - if the atmosphere is unstable it continues to rise
a transition zone between two air masses having different densities (temperatures)
* fronts typically separate air masses with different temperatures and humidities
* since air masses have both a vertical and horizontal extent, a front also extends upward in the vertical - the "frontal surface" (frontal zone)
circulation in which air rises at the equator,-moves poleward at upper levels, cools, converges, and sinks at ~ 30 degrees latitude; and returns to the equator at lower levels. The latitudes beneath the rising branch of the Hadley Cell are known as the doldrums
a circulation in which air sinks at ~ 30 degrees latitude, moves poleward at low levels, rises at ~ 60 degrees latitude, and returns to ~ 30 degrees latitude at upper levels. The latitudes beneath the sinking branch of the Ferrel Cell (or Hadley Cell) are known as the "Horse Latitudes (little rain and light winds)
a circulation in which air rises at ~ 60 degrees latitude, moves poleward at upper levels, sinks over the pole, and returns to ~ 60 degrees latitude at lower levels