Someone who buys and sells goods to earn money
Italian traveler. At the age of 17, he was one of first Westerners to travel Silk Road. He worked for China's rule, Kublai Khan. His "Travels of Marco Polo" was the only account of the Far East available to Europeans until the 17th century. It made Europeans more interested in traveling to Asia.
Several trade routes between China and Europe; it's how silk got out of China
a place ruled by a king or queen
first West African kingdom to be based on the wealth of the salt and gold trade. Ghana was rich in gold but did not have enough salt needed to keep food from spoiling. The Arab merchants came and traded their salt for gold.
a group of people traveling together for mutual protection, often with a pack animals such as camels to carry their goods and supplies.
greatest king of the Mali empire in West Africa; he is known mostly for his travel to Mecca (1324). He established trade agreements with the cities he visited and established Timbuktu as a center for learning, art and trade.
means "Rebirth"-- period of rebirth of art, science, learning, knowledge and literature in Europe in the 1300s and 1400s.
the use of scientific knowledge and tools to do things better and more rapidly
developed the printing press in1454; allowed books and ideas to spread across Europe because people no longer had to copy books by hand.
the science of planning and controlling the direction of a ship
a tool that measures the height of the sun or a star above the horizon; sailors used it to tell how far north or south of home they were
2 important tools developed by the North Africans that helped sailors with navigation
Astrolabe and compass
The money earned from conducting business after all costs and expenses have been paid
the first European country to find a sea route to Asia; they traveled along Africa's coast to get there.
a religious community where priests taught Christianity
forts built in New Spain to protect Spanish towns and missions
Pedro Menendez de Aviles
Spanish explorer in 1565; Set up St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest European city in America
a large farm or ranch, often with its own village and church
to change from one belief to another; the Spanish missions wanted to convert American Indians to Roman Catholics
a violent uprising against a ruler. In 1680, a Pueblo Indian leader named Pope led a revolt against the Spanish in New Mexico. They kept the Spanish out of New Mexico until 1692.
Bartolome de las Casas
A priest who protested the terrible treatment of Native Americans (Indians). He convinced the Spanish king to make laws to help protect them. Although many did not follow the laws, he helped influence the way many Europeans viewed Indians.
the founder of 9 missions along California's coast. He believed he was serving God by converting Indians to Christianity.
Prince Henry of Portugal
was known as the Navigator because he set up a school to train sailors in navigation
a cruel system in which are bought and sold and made to work without pay
proved it is possible to sail around Africa to reach its east coast when a storm blew his ships off course
Cape of Good Hope
The southern tip of Africa.
Vasco de Gama
An early Portuguese explorer who was first to go up the east coast of Africa and reach India.
explorer born in Italy who wanted to reach Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic instead of south around Africa. He asked King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to pay for his voyage. He set sail from Spain in 1492.
Three ships Columbus took to sail to the New World
Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
name of the island on which Columbus landed (part of the Bahamas). Columbus mistakenly believed he landed in India.
peaceful people of the Caribbean who met Columbus
Gold and spices
the reason Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to pay for Columbus's trip
to travel in a circle around something
a small community of people living in a new place
What good things did Columbus take with him to the West Indies?
pigs, horses, cows, wheat and sugar cane
What bad things did Columbus bring with him to the West Indies?
diseases, rain forests were destroyed
an outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads rapidly
What did Columbus take back to Europe from the West Indies?
corn, potatoes, peanuts, chocolate and tomatoes
the movement of plants, animals and people between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres
Portugese sailor who sailed for Spain. He believed he could sail west, travel around the world and end up back in Spain. He named the Pacific Ocean because it looked peaceful.
His crew became the first explorers to circumnavigate the world, proving Columbus' theory was correct. (Only 18 of 250 men on his voyage survived-- He was killed in a battle on the Phillipine Islands and did not make the entire voyage)
an area of land ruled by another country
a journey to achieve a goal
Spanish for conqueror
many nations or territories ruled by a single group or leader
Juan Ponce de Leon
led an expedition to present day Florida looking for gold and the Fountain of Youth. He was the first conquistador to reach the U.S.
Hernando de Soto
he was a Spanish explorer who led a group of the first Europeans across the Southeast to reach the Mississippi River
Searched for cities of gold. Established presence in southwest, discovered the Grand Canyon.
led expedition to Mexico in 1519 and defeated the Aztec Empire; captured capital of Tenochtitlan and the Aztec ruler Montezuma
the name given by the Spanish for Mexico and southwestern U.S.