Chinggish (Genghis) Khan
• born in the 1170s into one of the splinter clans that fought for survival in the decades after the death of Kabul Khan.
• enslaved, became leader in his father's place
• defeated Mongol rivals
• elected khagan (supreme ruler) of Mongol tribes.
• named after the golden tent of the early khans of the western sector of the Mongol Empire. The territories of the Golden Horde made up one of the four great khanates into which the Mongol Empire was divided at the time of Chinggis Khan's death.
• Subjugating the regions of Russia and Europe were the project of the armies of the Golden Horde
• into what the Mongol Empire was divided into at the time of Chinggis Khan's death.
• one of the grandsons of Chinggis Khan, and he would play a pivotal role in Chinese history for the next half century.
• ruled most of China
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
• Wendi extended Empire across North China. In 589, his armies conquered the Chen kingdom (south China) and reunited core areas of Chinese civilization
• lowered taxes, established granaries, surplus grain
• Yangdi murdered father to reach the throne, extended father's conquests, milder legal code, tried to restore examination system. Detriment to great aristocratic families and nomadic military commanders. Forced peasants to build extravagant construction projects
• Yangdi attempted to bring Korea back under Chinese rule along with Turkic nomads and Central Asia led to revolts. Yangdi was killed by his ministers.
• had an empire that was far larger than the Han and extends the borders of present day China
• restored bureacracy
(960 - 1279 AD); this dynasty was started by Tai Zu; by 1000, a million people were living there; started feet binding; had a magnetic compass; had a navy; traded with india and persia (brought pepper and cotton); first to have paper money, explosive gun powder; *landscape black and white paintings
• commissioned many Buddhist paintings and sculptures noteworthy for their colossal size
• tried to make Buddhism a state religion
• commissioned many Buddhist paintings and sculptures
• tried to establish new rule
• strong but controversial dynasty
• counterpart of veil and seclusion
• may have had its origins in the delight of one of the Tang emperors took in the tiny feet of his favorite dancing girl.
• upper-class men had developed a preference for small feet for women.
• spread to lower-class groups including peasantry.
• response to male demands, the successful negotiation of a young woman's marriage contract might hinge, mothers bounded their daughters' feet as early as age five or six.
• bound tightly with silk.
• "lotus petal", "golden lily"
• source of pain for the rest of a woman's life, greatly limited mobility by making it very difficult to walk even short distances.
• Chinese merchants and sailors increasingly carried Chinese trade overseas instead of being content to let foreign seafarers come to them.
• Chinese junks were the best ships in the world in this period (along with Arab dhows)
• They were equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, oars, sails, compasses, bamboo fenders, and gunpowder-propelled rockets for self-defense.
• With these vessels, Chinese sailors and merchants became the dominant force in the Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
• Yangdi risked his throne to build canal.
• designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze River basin more than 500 miles to the south. Because the great river systems that were essential to China's agrarian base ran from west to east - from the mountains of central Asia to the sea - the movement of people and goods in that direction was much easier than from north to south
• revivers of ancient Confucian teachings, believed that cultivating personal morality was the highest goal for humans.
• virtue could be attained through knowledge gained by book learning and personal observation as well as contact with men of wisdom and high morality.
were loyal to the local lords, not to court the court or high aristocratic officials, they were increasingly called in to protect the emperor and his retainers and to keep the peace in the capital. In 11th and 12th centuries, bandits freely roamed the countryside and the streets of the capital. Buddhist monasteries employed armed toughs to protect them and attack rival sects. The court and high officials hired provincial lords and their Samurai retainers (bushi) to serve as body guards and to protect their palaces and mansions from robbery and arson. Bushi and Samurai dedicated their lives to hunting, riding, archery practice, and other activities that sharpened their martial skills. Until the 12th century, the main weapons of the mounted warriors were powerful longbows, although they also carried straight swords. From the 12th century onwards, they increasingly relied on the curved steel swords (katana maybe?) we commonly associate with the Japanese samurai.
Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai
the military leaders of the bakufu ("tent" or military government)
rulers of the divided 300 little kingdoms, whose warlord rulers were called daimyos rather than bushi.
in 646, basically remodeled the Japanese imperial system. History was written in dynastic cycles, scholars tried to memorize thousands of Chinese characters, and Chinese protocol with Japanese etiquette was uneasily combined. Japanese aristocracy struggled to master Confucian ways, worshiped in Chinese styled temples, and took and interest in Buddhist art- Chinese in subject and technique. These reforms ceased in 794.
The Tale of Gengi
This work on court life elegantly captured the sadness and underlying tensions more beautifully than anything else. This also happened to be the first novel in any language.
the extensive adoption of Chinese culture in Korea