Chp. 6 Cell structure and function

26 terms by cbak10 

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nuclear envelope

layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell

chromatin

combination of DNA and protein molecules, in the form of long, thin fibers, making up the genetic material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell

chromosome

condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide

nucleolus

ball-like mass of fibers and granules in a cell nucleus

centriole

one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope

phospholipid bilayer

two-layer "sandwich" of molecules that surrounds a cell

concentration

the strength of a solution

diffusion

the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

equilibrium

When the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution

osmosis

diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal

isotonic

having a solute concentration equal to that of another solution

hypertonic

having a higher concentration of solute than another solution

hypotonic

having a lower concentration of solute than another solution

facilitated diffusion

pathway provided by transport proteins that helps certain molecules pass through a membrane

active transport

movement of molecules across a membrane requiring energy to be expended by the cell

endocytosis

process of taking material into a cell within vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane

phagocytosis

the process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food

pinocytosis

process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment

exocytosis

process of exporting proteins from a cell by a vesicle fusing with the plasma membrane and spilling the proteins outside the cell

cell specialization

the process in which cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks

tissue

cooperating unit of many similar cells that perform a specific function

organ

unit consisting of several tissues that together perform a specific task

organ system

unit of multiple organs that together perform a vital body function

ATP

main energy source that cells use for most of their work

microtubule

straight, hollow tube of proteins that gives rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell

microfilament

solid rod of protein, thinner than a microtubule, that enables a cell to move or change shape

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