Enzymes speed up chemical reactions
What do enzymes do to chemical reactions?
O2 + H2O
What does H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) break down into?
What major class of biological molecules are enzymes a "sub-set" of?
The active site changes shape a little bit
What happens to the shape of the active site when a substrate binds to it?
Substrates turn into products
Do substrates turn into products or do products turn into substrates?
infinite amount of times
How many times can a single enzyme molecule be used to "transform" a chemical reaction?
Without enzymes, the substrate would still break down eventually, but it would take days or even weeks instead of seconds, so life would not be possible.
Would biological life be possible without enzymes? Explain
The shape of the molecule changes and the active site(s) doesn't work as well as it should when an enzyme gets denatured. The enzyme can still do its job, but not as well.
What does denaturing do to an enzyme's active site?
Heat / Acidity / Salinity / Toxins
What four kinds of things can cause an enzyme to become denatured?
It is still able to do its job, but not as well.
What happens to an enzyme's ability to do its job if it is denatured?
They can become denatured.
What can happen to the enzymes in your brain if you have a really high fever?
The excess salt interferes with the hydrogen bonding that helps give an enzyme its special shape.
How does salinity affect an enzyme's active site?
Could excess salt cause an enzyme to stop working?
Lead / copper / mercury / arsenic
Name some common environmental toxins that can interfere with enzyme activity.
A co-enzyme is a separate enzyme that aids the substrate into keying into the active site.
What is the job of a co-enzyme?
A co-enzyme speeds up the basic chemical reaction of an enzyme.
Does a co-enzyme affect the speed of a chemical reaction, and if so, how?
What is the name of a very common co-enzyme that you might buy at a grocery store?
Cofactors serve as co-enzymes and increase the activity of the enzyme, and bind to an enzyme and aid in increasing enzyme activity.
What is the difference between a co-enzyme and a cofactor?
Inhibitors are molecules that block the active site, causing the enzyme not to function.
What do inhibitors do to the active site on an enzyme?
Inhibitors are not always bad because some drugs use inhibitors to target a tumor cell or to fix some kind of disease. Also, sometimes inhibitors are produced by a cell to slow down or stop a chemical reaction.
Are inhibitors always bad? Explain.
If a cell doesn't need a certain product, it turns off the chemical reaction by using inhibitors.
Why might a cell produce inhibitors?
Approximately how many different enzymes might be found in a single species of animal?
This means that each enzyme has a specific chemical reaction to carry out. Each enzyme is unique.
What is meant by "each enzyme is designed to carry out only a single kind of chemical reaction"?
The substrate is the key, the enzyme is the lock, and each key only fits into one lock.
What is meant by the "lock and key" model?
This is what the H stands for in the term pH.
This is an atom with either a positive or negative electrical charge.
power (of the hydrogen ion)
This is what the p in pH stands for.
A hydrogen atom that has gained or lost some electrons
The electrical charge on a hydrogen ion
It is not aqueous.
Why doesn't gasoline have a pH value?
H2O--> H+ and OH-
How can water split up and make hydrogen ions?
~10,000,000 : 1
In pure water, what is the ratio of water molecules to hydrogen ions?
It is the reverse of the exponent for the amount of hydrogen ions in one molecule
Where does the pH of water (7) come from?
What is the range of values for aqueous solutions that are considered acids?
What is the range of values for aqueous solutions that are considered bases?
(Yes or No) Is an acid with a pH of 2 more concentrated than an acid with a pH of 7?
Yes; A little
(Yes or No) Do bases contain hydrogen ions? A lot or a little?
Bases have more OH- than H+
Does a base have more H+ ions than OH- ions, the same amount, or more OH- ions than H+ ions?
The same amount
Does pure water have more H+ ions than OH- ions, the same amount, or more OH- ions than H+ ions?
How many times more acidic is a solution with a pH of 6 as compared with a solution with a pH of 7?
True or false: The pH scale is linear, meaning that it does not follow scientific notation when comparing acids.
An animal can "blow off" excess CO2 gas from the lungs or urinate
What are the two ideas mentioned that an animal (like a human) can use to regulate the pH of its blood?
As a result of the extra H+ ions in the solution interfering with the hydrogen bonding, the molecule changes shape and becomes non-functional
What happens to polypeptides if the pH of their environment changes?
What molecular feature was presented that helps maintain the normal shape of an enzyme or protein?
The carbon dioxide gas in the air.
Where does the acid come from in normal rainwater (non-polluted)?
Sulfur trioxide, nitrogen dioxide
Name the two gases that were presented that can cause acid rain.
How low could the pH go of rain in severe acid rain conditions?
You could add a base such as seawater.
If you had a goldfish pond outside that was experiencing stress due to acid rain, what might you add to the water to correct the pH to a more normal level?
pH of blood
pH of lemon juice
pH of seawater
pH of vinegar
pH of coffee
minimum pH tolerance for a bass
minimum pH tolerance for a salamander
(True or False) If you eat a bunch of acidic foods, your blood pH could be temporarily affected
(True or False) Hydrogen bonding does not affect the shape of proteins and enzymes
(True or False) If an enzyme gets denatured by acidic conditions, then its shape changes and its active sites might not function properly.
When atoms recombine in new ways to make new molecules
to increase the rate of
convert starch into high fructose corn syrup
split protein molecules in beer making
clarify fruit juices
soften starches in paper making
used to break down fats in detergents
breaks down toxic H2O2 in cells