Apologia Biology Module 6# Definitions and Review

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This is a huge module packed with tons of information. Because of the necessity for good review, I have included definitions and questions.

Absorption

The transport of dissolved substances into cells

Digestion

The breakdown of absorbed substances

Respiration

The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy

Excretion

The removal of soluble waste materials

Secretion

The release of biosynthesized substances

Homeostasis

Maintaining the status quo

Egestion

The removal of nonsoluble waste materials

Reproduction

Producing more cells

Cytology

The study of cells

Cell Wall

A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells

Middle Lamella

The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells

Plasma Membrane

The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings.

Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.

Ions

Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons.

Cytoplasmic Streaming

The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.

Mitochondria

The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy

Lysosome

The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids

Ribosomes

Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis

Endoplasmic Reticulum

An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within the cell

Rough ER

ER that is dotted with ribosomes

Smooth ER

ER that has no ribosomes

Leucoplasts

Organelles that store starches or oils

Chromoplasts

Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis

Central Vacuole

A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes

Waste Vacuoles

Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion

Phagocytosis

The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells

Phagocytic Vacuole

A vacuole that holds the matter which the cell engulfs

Pinocytic Vesicle

A vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules

Secretion Vesicle

A vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released.

Golgi Bodies

The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell

Microtubules

Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tube-like structure

Nuclear Membrane

A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

Chromatin

Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell

water, organic molecules, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, ions

What is the cytoplasm composed of?

respiration

Which of the 11 functions does the mitochondria perform?

digestion

Which of the 11 functions does the lysosome perform?

biosynthesis

The ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis. What type of function is that?

lipids, hormones, steroids

What does the Smooth ER produce?

specialized proteins

What does the Rough ER produce?

Endoplasmic Reticulum

What does ER stand for?

starches or oils

What do the leucoplasts store?

stroma

What is the liquid that chromoplasts are filled with?

turgor pressure

What does the central vacuole produce to keep the cell's shape?

phagocytic vacuole

When a cell engulfs a food particle it forms what?

pinocytic vesicle

When a cell absorbs a large molecule, what is the pocked called that it forms?

proteins and lipids

What do the Golgi Bodies store, modify, and send off?

centrioles

What organelle is responsible for the production of cilia and flagellum?

nucleolus

Where are ribosomes assembled?

ribonucleic acid

What does RNA stand for?

Cytoskeleton

A network of fibers that hold the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement

Microfilaments

Fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton

Immediate Filaments

Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.

Movement

What are the microfilaments primarily responsible for?

Microtubules

What organelle provides a "track" upon which organelles and vesicles can travel through the cell?

strengthening and supporting the cell

What are the intermediate filaments responsible for?

Phospholipid

A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group

Passive Transport

Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion

Active Transport

Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane aided by a process that requires energy

Isotonic Solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution

Hypertonic Solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution

Plasmolysis

Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of waters

Cytolysis

The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure

Hypotonic Solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution

proteins, cholesterol, phospholipids

What is the plasma membrane composed of?

The glycerol side

Which side (the glycerol or the fatty acid side) of the phospholipid is hydrophilic?

phospholipid bilayer

What is the double layer of phospholipids in the plasma membrane called?

glycoprotein

When a carbohydrate attaches to a protein, the protein is called what?

glycolipid

When a carbohydrate attaches to a phospholipid, the result is what?

hypertonic solution

If a cell implodes, it was probably in what type of solution?

hypotonic solution

If a cell explodes, what type of solution was it in?

Activation Energy

Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going.

Glycolysis, Formation of Acetyl Coenzyme A, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport System

What are the four different stages of cellular respiration?

12 Hydrogen Molecules

How many hydrogen molecules are produced over the entire cellular respiration?

2 ATPs

What is the net gain of ATPs produced in glycolysis?

2 ATPs

How many ATPs are produced in the Krebs Cycle?

32

How many ATPs are produced in the Electron Transport System?

1 Glucose + 6 Oxygen = 6 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water + 36 ATP Energy

What is the overall reaction in Aerobic Cellular Respiration?

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