exclusion of some true members from a category; limiting a concept (for instance, tomatoes are really fruits—but many people resist this knowledge).
Hierarchical concept map
A hierarchy suggests a particular order or classification or that some characteristics are more important than others.
Bruner's approach to discovery learning
students work on their own to discover basic principles
drawing conclusions by applying rules or principles: logically moving from a general rule or principle to a specific solution.
Ausubel's method of expository teaching
teachers present material in complete, organized form, moving from broadest to more specific concepts.
teaching new concepts by making connections (analogies) with information that the student already understands.
Well-defined problem (common in schools)
Has only one correct solution and a certain method for finding it. If you have two bananas and someone gives you two more, how many do you have. There is one right answer.
Ill-defined (common in life)
Has more than one acceptable solution, an ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed-upon strategy for reaching a solution. How are you going to learn all this Ed Psych material? There are several right answers and the barriers to learning differ from student to student.
Schema-driven problem solving
recognizing a problem as a "disguised" version of an old problem for which one already has a solution.
a strategy in which the problem solver attempts to break the problem into sub-goals and works successively on each.
heuristic in which one starts with the goal and moves backward to solve the problem.
a strategy that is used to solve unfamiliar problems by comparing them with problems already solved.
judging the likelihood of an event based on how well the events match your prototypes—what you think is representative of the category.
judging the likelihood of an event based on what is available in your memory, assuming those easily remembered events are common.
seeking information that confirms our choices and beliefs, while disconfirming evidence.
a form of scaffolding that occurs when a less skilled learner works at the side of an expert (student teaching is a form of cognitive apprenticeship).
the awareness of and control over one's own cognitive processes; thinking about thinking. Thinking about how you learn.
The process of checking to see if you understand the material you're reading or hearing.
the process of drawing inferences, identifying examples, and forming relationships in the material being studied.
tools for concept mapping developed by the Institute for Human Machine Cognition that are connected to many knowledge maps and other resources on the Internet.
A five-step reading strategy: Review headings; Examine boldface words; Ask "What do I expect to learn?"; Do it—Read; Summarize in your own words.
a strategy that can be used in reading literature: Characters, Aim of story, Problem, Solution.
A strategy to guide reading and inquiry: Before—what do I already know? What do I want to know? After—what have I learned?
beliefs about the structure, stability, and certainty of knowledge and how knowledge is best learned.
the ability to take knowledge or skills learned in one context and apply them in a broad range of different contexts.
the ability to apply information in a context similar to the context in which it was originally learned.
spontaneous and automatic transfer of highly practiced skills (e.g., your skills at taking multiple-choice tests).
application of abstract knowledge learned in one situation to a different situation.