Sociology Ch. 9-13

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social stratification

the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige; applies to both nations and to people with a nation, society, or other group

debt crime war

slavery was not based on race, but on:
1._______
2._______
3._______

bonded labor (indentured service)

a contractual system in which someone sells his or her body (services) for a specified period of time in an arrangement very close to slavery, except that is is entered into voluntarily

ideology

beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements

caste system

a form of social stratification in which people's statuses are determined by birth and are lifelong

endogamy

the practice of marrying within one's own group

ritual pollution

touching an inferior caste contaminates the superior caste

jati

India has four castes (based on religion) and about three thousand subcastes called _____


brahman priests and teachers
kshatriya rulers and soldiers
vaishya merchants and traders
shudra peasants and laborers
dalit (untouchables) the outcastes; degrading or polluting labor

estate stratification system

the stratification system of medieval europe, consisting of three groups or estates: the nobility, clergy, and commoners

class system

a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions

social mobility

movement up or down the social class ladder

power property prestige

weber's three "p"s of social class:
1) ________- the ability to influence people, maybe even against their desires
2) ________ (or wealth)- things that you own; assets (wealth = stream of income)
3) _________- the degree of honor or respect a person has

davis moore

(functionalist perspective)
kingsley _______ and wilbert _______:
stratification is inevitable because...
-society must make certain that its positions are filled
- some positions are more important than others
- the more important positions must be filled by the more qualified people
- to motivate the more qualified people to fill these positions, society must offer them greater rewards

melvin tumin

________ _______: first sociologist to point out what he saw as major flaws in the functionalist position
- how do we know that the positions that offer the higher rewards are more important?
- if davis and moore were correct, society would be a meritocracy
- if social stratification is so functional, it ought to benefit everyone

meritocracy

a form of social stratification in which all positions are awarded based on merit

gaetano mosca

(conflict perspective)
argued that every society will be stratified by power
1. no society can exist unless it is organized (requires leadership)
2. leadership (or political organization) requires inequalities of power
3. because human nature is self-centered, people in power will use their positions to seize greater reward for themselves

lenski surplus

(functionalist and conflict theories reconciled)
gerhard _______: suggested that _______ is the key-
- functionalists are right when it comes to groups that don't accumulate a surplus; give a greater share of their resources to those who take on important tasks
- societies that do accumulate them fight over the surplus, and the group that wins becomes an elite
- analyzed how people try to maximize their status

lenin trosky

vladimir ilyich _____ and leon _______ led a revolution in russia in 1917

world system theory

immanuel wallerstein:
proposed the ______ _____ ______ (economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together); stated that industrialization led to four groups of nations
- core nations (countries that industrialized first; britain, france, holland, germany)
- semiphery (mediterranean nations that grew dependent on trades with the core nations)
- periphery (fringe nations; eastern european countries; sold cash crops to core nations)
- external area (left out of the development of capitalism; most of asia and africa)

galbrait

john kenneth ________- economist, claimed that the cultures of the least industrialized nations hold them back
crippled by a culture of poverty (the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics along to their children)

michael harrington

__________ _________- sociologist, argued that when colonialism fell out of style it was replaced by neocolonialism (the economic and political dominance of the last industrialized nations by the most industrialized nations); put the least industrial nations in debt to them

c. wright mills

coined the term the "power elite" to refer to those who make the big decisions in u.s. society

william domhoff

argues that the power elite is so powerful that the u.s. govt. makes no major decision without its approval

erik wright

sociologist, suggests that some people are members of more than one class at a time
- they occupy what he calls contradictory class locations
(position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests)

kahl gilbert

joseph _____ and dennis _______: six-tier model to portray class structure of the u.s. and other capitalist countries (based on weber)
capitalist
upper middle
lower middle
working
working poor
underclass

higginbotham weber

elizabeth ___________ and lynn _______ studied 200 women from working-class backgrounds who had become administrators, managers, and professionals in memphis
these women's parents had implanted ideas of success in them when they were little girls, encouraging them to postpone marriage and get an education

sennett cobb

richard _______ and jonathan ______- sociologists, studied working-class parents in boston
parents made deep sacrifices to send their kids to school
the children's educated world as so unlike that of their parents that they had nothing in common and nothing to talk about; parents felt betrayed

gender stratification

males' and females' unequal access to property, power, and prestige on the basis of their sex

gender

around the world, _________ is the primary division between people

gerda lerner

(historian and feminist) concluded that "there is not a single society known where women-as-a-group have decision-making power over men (as a group)."

george murdock

(anthropologist) analyzed data that researchers had reported on 324 societies around the world; found that in all of them, activities are sex-typed

feminism

the view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted

samuel stouffer

headed a research team that produced The American Soldier (1949), a classic study of WWII combat soldiers (officers used feminine terms as insults)

tiwi

the _____ "cover up," or bury old women alive when they are very frail

healthy diets community

Abkhasians may be the longest-lived people on earth; due to:
- _________ _______
- much physical activity, even after 100 years of age they still work around 4 hours a day
- a highly developed sense of ________
they treat the elderly with respect and ask them for guidance

intergenerational

____________ mobility refers to a change that occurs between generations--when grown-up children end up on a different rung of the social class ladder from the one occupied by their parents

structural

_________ mobility refers to changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder

exchange

_________ mobility occurs when large numbers of people move up and down the social ladder, but, on balance, the proportions of the social classes remain about the same

horatio alger myth

the belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone can get ahead if he or she tries hard enough

erik wright

sociologist, developed a four class model based on marx:
1) capitalists
2) petty bourgeoisie
3) managers
4) workers

closed system

in a ________ ________, ascribed status is often reinforced by law and religion
[law and religion cause it to exist (dominant religion of the country)]

slavery caste estate

three types of closed systems:
1. ________
2. ________
3. _________

colonialism world system poverty

how did the world's nations become stratified?
- the main theories that seek to account for global stratification are ____________, _______ ________ theory, and the culture of _________.

colonialism

the process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources

world system theory

economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together
- according to this theory, industrialization led to four groups of nations...
1. core nations (industrialized first; britian, france, holland, germnany)
2. semiperiphery (mediterranean region, stagnated bc they grew dependent on trade w/ core nations)
3. periphery (eastern europe, fringe nations, developed even less)
4. external area (most of africa and asia)

culture of poverty

the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children

neocolonialism

the ongoing economic and political dominance of the least industrialized nations by the most industrialized nations

neocolonialism corporations

how do elites maintain global stratification?
- _____________
- and multinational ____________ (the new technology gives further advantage to the most industrialized nations)

functionalist conflict

why is social stratification universal?
- the __________ view: motivating qualified people,
(davis and moore's explanation)
- the _________ perspective: class conflict and scarce resources
(mosca, marx)
lenski

consistency inconsistency

weber says that if you have all three Ps of equal levels, you have status __________

if you have them in unequal amounts, you have status _______________

status inconsistency

college professors and the clergy have ___________ ___________

status consistency

donald trump and poor people have _______ ____________
(their money reflects their status)

c. wright mills

...said power is most important
- wrote a book in 1956 called the power elite
- looked at sectors of people who had power and found that if you had power in one sector, you had power and influence in all the others
(called multiple interlockers)

gender stratification

unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on sex

master

gender is a ________ status

gender sex

_______ refers to social/cultural characteristics (like sex-typing; roles)
while _____ is based on biology

george murdock

________ _________ is the anthropologist that says that all men and women sex-type activities;
- activities that are considered male in one society could be considered female in another;
- male activities are more valued

feminism

the view that biology is not destiny
- stratification by gender is wrong

voting equality violence workforce

women's movement had three waves
first wave: 1920s; ________;
- split between established, upper class women and immigrant women
second wave: 1960s; ________
- hugely influenced by civil rights (for other races and for women)
- split less over social class and more over liberal vs. conservative
women attended universities
increase in political participation and wages
women have passed men in dentistry
sexual harrassment
third wave: today?
- _______ against women, women in least industrialized nations (slavery, rape, violence, health care),
- to remove barriers to women as it relates to love and sexual pleasure,
- women in the _________

larry summers

president of Harvard five years ago; just resigned from Obama's administration
- said that there are fewer women engineers and scientists because of innate inferiority; caused a major outcry, brought female students together

liberal arts education nursing

women in education:
- larger percentage of women go to college
- degrees are disproportionally in _______ _____, __________, & _________
- larger percentage go to graduate school

ignored

healthcare:
- doctors take men 10 times more seriously than women
women die of heart disease because their symptoms are _______

discontinuous employment

workforce:
_____________ ____________: women miss out on promotions because they leave and reenter the workforce to have children

mentors

workforce:
women miss out because they lack _______ to help teach them the ropes/the culture of the workforce

second shift

"________ _______": women who work full time and go home and work full time in the household

glass ceiling

the "_______ _________": women can't get up to the highest positions; a man and a woman will start out together and will progress together; the woman stops progressing and the man goes beyond...
when a woman goes beyond this, they "crack" the _______ _______

glass escalator

the "_____ ________": for men; men that go into nontraditional careers for men have an easier ride up than women do

power

sexual harassment: often about ______, not necessarily a sexual activity
- a superior puts unwanted pressure on a subordinate (not necessarily men on women)

quid pro quo hostile work environment

two kinds of sexual harassment that have legal reprecussions:
1) _____ ____ ____ (if you do something sexual for me, i will give you a work-related position) easier to prove
2) _______ ______ ________ (people signed out)
both of these have to do with power

confront notes

if you're being harassed, the first thing you should do is to _______ the person. if it continues, go to a supervisor, take _____/documentation

honor killings

______ ________: middle eastern practice; a woman who has shamed the family is killed by a male family member, so he can restore the family's honor

work religious family medical

immigrants have come over for different reasons:
- _____, economic opportunities
- _______ freedom
- to be with ______

came as slaves or indentured servants
_______ help
education

race

_____ is the inherited physical traits that separate one group from another
(i.e. hair texture, skin color, facial features, epicanthic fold of the eye, height)

caucasian negroid mongoloid

according to anthropologists, the three most common races were: _________, _______, _________

culture

ethnicity ties back to _________
(language, religion, nationality, customs, traditions)
- brings one group together but puts them against others
- sense of "we" and "they"

68

white anglo-saxon protestant (WASP) __% of the pop.
- white ethnics (catholics, other european countries, western europe)

13

african american __%
(came in bondage, pull/push theory, pulled from shores of africa, pushed to u.s., names/identities taken from them, lost all sense of culture and heritage)

14

latino(a) __%
(largest ethnic population, fastest growing, most come from mexico, then central and south america, cuba, phillipines)

4

asian __%
(very fast growing, first asian immigrants in the 1800s came from china to come work on the railroads, then japanese, wave from cambodia/ vietnam came in the late 60s early 70s
chinese- restaurant business, ? womens' work?
japanese came next, after pearl harbor were put in

1

native american __%
highest illiteracy rate, over 500 tribes in the U.S. at one point

ethnic

2010 census: most significant thing = ability to claim more than one _____ identity

attitude

- prejudice is the ________ that you have a disfavorable opinion of a person because they're members of a socially disvalued group

action

discrimination is the _______; the negative treatment of someone because they are members of a socially disvalued group

Robert Merton

________ _______ - typology
- unprejudiced nondiscriminator (ideal)
- unprejudiced discriminator (will discriminate when it fits them, i.e. person wants to go to MLK rally but it could hurt their family's business)
- prejudiced nondiscriminator (prejudiced but won't act on it)
- prejudiced discriminator (acts on beliefs, i.e. racial profiling)

assimilation

ethnic group is expected to give up their identity and take on the dominant culture (i.e. given up language, changed their name/anglicized their name, traditional clothing)

pluralism

ethnic group member retains their identity at the same time embracing the dominant culture

william julius wilson

african american, feels that people are more accepting of someone who is like them regarding their social identity/shared traits of social class

civil rights

______ ______ 1964-1965: the vote
ensured that all african americans could vote freely, without penalty

civil rights lyndon b. johnson

benefits of ________ _______:
eliminated segregation
blacks and whites could marry
integration of neighborhoods
equal employment opportunitues
affirmative action created by ________ _ _______

michael bakke

1978- applied for medical school at the University of California at Davis, applied in his late 20s early 30s, was an engineer, good test scores, good ranking, but he didn't get in... found out that he was qualified, supreme court favored him as being the victim of reverse affirmative action, first case of its kind

fifth

the working poor and underclass together form about one-______ of the U.S. population
(60 million people)

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