GACS lclab World History - Unit 5 - Islam - Study Guide

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GACS lclab World History - Unit 5 - Islam Study Guide

sheik

an Arab chief

Allah

is the standard Arabic name for God. Term is best known in the West for its use by Muslims as a reference to God, it is used by Arabs of all Abrahamic faiths, including Mizrahi Jews, Bahá'ís, Eastern Orthodox Christians and Eastern Catholic Christians. The same God that the Jews call Yahweh and the God that Christians call God the Father.

hijra

the first year of the Muslim calendar;

polygamy

is a form of marriage in which a person has more than one spouse at the same time, as opposed to monogamy in which a person has only one spouse at a time

caliph

successor to the Prophet; first one was of of Muhammad's generals, Aub Bakr

arabesque

an artistic motif that is characterized by the application of repeating geometric forms and fancifully combined patterns; these forms often echo those of plants and animals and are often found decorating the walls of mosques

Qur'an

The holy scripture of Islam

Ramadan

the ninth month of the Islamic calendar; the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking and sexual relations from dawn until sunset; fasting is intended to teach Muslims about patience, humility, and spirituality; a time for Muslims to fast for the sake of God and to offer more prayer than usual; Muslims ask forgiveness for past sins, pray for guidance and help in refraining from everyday evils, and try to purify themselves through self-restraint and good deeds.

hajj

pilgrimage

jihad

the war for the establishment of God's law on Earth; dying in one assures a direct ticket to heaven, according to Islam

Moors

A member of a Muslim people of mixed Berber and Arab descent, now living chiefly in northwest Africa.; One of the Muslims who invaded Spain in the 8th century and established a civilization in Andalusia that lasted until the late 15th century.

Delhi Sultanate

a force of Turks and Afgans rode into India from their strongholds in the Afghani hills; they created this state based in their newly founded capital and continued to govern most of Northern India for the next 300 years; provided the historical foundation for the modern state of Pakistan.

Islam

is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God and by the teachings and normative example of Muhammad; an adherent of this religion is called Muslim.

Ka'aba

the original shrine of pagan Arabic religion in Mecca containing the Black Stone; now one of the holiest places of Islam

mosque

is a place of worship for followers of Islam

Sunnis

the majority group in Islam; adherents believe that the caliphate should go to the most qualified individual and should not necessarily pass to the kin of Mhuammad

Shi'ites

a minority sect of Islam; adkerents believe that kinship with Muhammad is necessary to qualily for he caliphate

Muslim

is an adherent of the religion of Islam. Literally, the word means "one who submits (to God)".

dhimmis

"People of the Book": Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians living under Muslim rule and receiving privileged treatment over the other non-Muslims

imam

is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to this person if they have a religious question. In smaller communities, this person could also be the community leader.

Jainism

is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation

harem

Turkish name for the part of a dwelling reserved for women

vizier

an official Muslim government, especially high Turkish official equivalent to prime minister

1001 Nights

is a collection of Middle Eastern and South Asian stories and folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age; often known in English as the Arabian Nights

Sanskrit

the sacred language of India; came originally from the Aryans; continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals in the forms of hymns and mantras

sati

In India, the practice in which a widow committed suicide at the death of her husband

Mahabharata

A Hindu epic poem; one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa; epic is part of the Hindu history

Bedouins

the nomadic inhabitants of interior Arabia and original converts to Islam

sharia

is the sacred law of Islam. Muslims believe it is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law; namely, the divine revelations set forth in the Qur'an, and the sayings and example set by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah.

umma

a term used in Islam to denote the worldwide community of the faithful

Arabic

is a Central Semitic language, thus related to and classified alongside other Semitic languages such as Hebrew and the Neo-Aramaic languages; has more speakers than any other language in the Semitic language family.

Gabriel

Islam believes _______was the medium through whom God revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad, and that he sent a message to most prophets, if not all, revealing their obligations.

Abu Bakr

the first successor to the prophet and one of Muhammad's general; was elected by his colleagues; died soon after his election

Abbas

uncle of Muhammad; Abbasid clan descended from this person;

Muhammad

was the founder of the religion of Islam, and is regarded by Muslims as a messenger and prophet of God, the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets, and, by most Muslims the last prophet as taught by the Qur'an 33:40-40.

Guptas

last Indian-led unification of the country until 20th century; ruled from base valley of the Ganges River; overcame rivals to eventually create an Empire ove rmost of India

Charles Martel

Frankish leader and Charlemagne's predecessor; remembered for winning the Battle of Tours in 732, in which he defeated an invading Muslim army and halted northward Islamic expansion in western Europe

Avicenna

one of the most important figures in Muslilm science; a physician and scientist of great importance to medieval Europe; author of famous handbook of clinical practice "The Canon of Medicine"

Chingis Khan

was the founder, ruler and emperor of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death; conquered the principality of Kiev and ruled the Russians for next 240 years

Ottoman Turks

Turkish tribe that invaded the Middle East and established an empire which lasted until World War I

Mohandas Gandhi

was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement; pioneered resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded on total nonviolence; concept helped India to gain independence, and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.

Mecca

Muhammad's birthplace

Cairo

One of 3 main capitals of the Muslim worldwide community; located in Egypt

Tours

significant battle fought between the Muslim Moors and the Christian Franks

Constantinople

was the imperial capital of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire, the Latin Empire and the Ottoman Empire; throughout most of the Middle Ages, was Europe's larges and wealthiest city.

Cordoba

One of 3 main capitals of the Muslim worldwide community; located in Spain

Medina

the second holiest city in Islam and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad; historically significant for being his home after the Hijrah.

Spain

XXXXXXXXXXx

Damascus

The Grand Mosque, built early in Muslim history; was constructed by the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs; considered one of the three most perfect buildings in the Islamic world

Taj Mahal

beautiful tomb built by the seventeenth centurey Mughal emporer Jahan for his third wife; It is widely considered as one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and stands as a symbol of eternal love.

Iran

XXXXXXXXXX

Arabian Peninsula

in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia; area is an important part of the Middle East and plays a critically important geopolitical role because of its vast reserves of oil and natural gas.

Baghdad

One of 3 main capitals of the Muslim worldwide community; located in Iraq

Pakistan

XXXXXXXXXXXX

1st of the Five Pillars of the Faith

Declaration of Faith -one god, no others have divinity

2nd of the Five Pillars of the Faith

prayer five times a day, facing Mecca

3rd of the Five Pillars of the Faith

Giving to the poor

4th of the Five Pillars of the Faith

fasting-especially during the holy month of Ramadan (when Muhammad is believed to have received the Qur'an)

5th of the Five Pillars of the Faith

Pilgrimage to Mecca at least one time

Jihad

war for the establishment of God's law on Earth; taking part highest honor for a good Muslim; dying in one assures direct ticket to heaven

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