← exam 3 phys 2 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin, 75% what are the 4 primary components of skeletal muscle fiber? these proteins make up what percentage of muscle protein? Titin what is the protein that connects the myosin to the Z discs? Titin what is the protein that helps stabilize the centering of the myosin filaments in the sarcomere? Nebulin what is the elongated inelastic protein that is attached to the Z discs and spirals the actin myofilaments? alpha-actinin what is the protein that attaches actin filaments to the Z discs? myomesin what is the myosin binding protein that serves to hold thick myosin filaments in register at the M line? C protein what is the myosin binding protein that serves the same function as myomesin and forms several distinct stripes on either side of the M line? sarcoplasmic reticulum, Ca2+ what is the ER of the muscle that generally lacks ribosomes called? has many __ pumps? lateral sacs terminal cisternae are also called what? synapse excitation-contraction: 1. excitation is initiated by ___ sarcolemma, T-tubules excitation-contraction: 2. action potential propogates along __ and ____ Ca2+ excitation-contraction: 3. __ released by sarcoplasmic reticulum into sarcoplasm troponin, troponin, tropomyosin excitation-contraction: 4. ca2+ binds ___ causing cooperative configurational changes in __ and __. This exposes a myosin/G-actin binding site. myosin, G-actin, myosin excitation-contraction: 5. __/__ bind together? 6. this binding causes a conformation change in the __. ADP, Pi excitation-contraction: 7. the cocked myosin head/g-actin moves, constituting muscle contraction. As this movement of the myosin head occurs the __+__ are released? ATP, ATP, G-actin excitation-contraction: 8. the mvmnt causes conformational change in the myosin head exposing the __ binding site. __ binds to myosin. 9. This binding releases the myosin from the ___. resting state excitation-contraction: 10. The ATPase portion of the myosin head cleaves ATP: ATP=ADP+Pi. The myosin head uses that energy to "re-cock" for the next cycle. This configuration is considered to be in a __ __ regarding the myosin. Rigor Mortis without ATP, G-actin and myosin will remain bound. This is the major factor in what? acetylcholine synaptic vesicles contain what NT? acetylcholine motor end plate function: 1. nerve impulse reaching the terminal axon causes release of __ depolarization motor end plate function: 2. acetylcholine binds to specific receptors on the sarcolemma which results in ___ of the latter. This is mediated by Na+ and K+ movement across the membrane. T-tubules, TC+T+TC motor end plate function: 3. the wave of depolarization spreads over the muscle cell and is propagated into the cell interior by ___. Depolarization of the triad (what are the 3 components of it) causes release of Ca2+ from the SR. acetylcholinesterase motor end plate function: 4. Released acetylcholine is broken down by what enzyme? dihydropyridine receptors, foot proteins, Ca2+, dihydropyridine receptors, Ca2+ voltage sensitive proteins called ___ __ are in the cell membrane of the T-tubules. These receptors are connected to __ __, which are in the cell membrane of the terminal cisterna. Foot proteins are __ channels. When the T-tubules are depolarized, the __ __ change shape, which in turn stimulates the abutting foot proteins to open up, allowing __ to flow from the terminal cisterna into the cytosol. actylcholinesterase The SR possesses Ca2+-ATPase pumps which actively transport Ca2+ from the cytosol and concentrates it in the lateral sacs. Of course, this does not occur until the ACh is removed from the motor endplate by __ number of fibers stimulated and frequency of stimulation contraction of a whole muscle can be of varying strength which is accomplished in two ways, what are they? ventral, motor unit NUmber of fibers stimulated: one motor neuron (in the dorsal/ventral horn) will supply several muscle fibers. That neuron plus all of the fibers it innervates is called a __ __. Those innervated fibers are spread throughout the muscle. asynchronous recruitment of motor units Muscles that are responsible for prolonged contraction such as back muscles have __ ___ __ __ __. twitch summation this occurs when 2 action potential fire rapidly enough such that the Ca2+ has not had enough time to be pumped out of the cytosol (where the troponin-tropomyosin is) back into the lateral sacs of the SR. called what? tetanus when fibers are maximally contracted. All binding sites are uncovered. called what? isotonic, isometric what are the 2 types of contraction? concentric-muscle shortens, eccentric-muscle lengthens what are the 2 types of isotonic contraction and describe them. isotonic the muscle tension remains constant as the muscle length changes is what type of contraction? isometric the muscle is prevented from shortening as muscle tension increases is what type of contraction? creatine phosphate __ __ is the first energy storehouse tapped at the onset of contractile activity creatine-kinase what enzyme catalyzes the change of creatine phosphate and ADP to creatine and ATP creatine phosphate sudden bursts of contraction will rely exclusively on ATP from __ __. ATP can be produced very rapidly from this source. phosphagen energy system the combined amount of muscle cell ATP and creatine phosphate is called the __ __ __. mitochondria, 36, aerobic, cytosol the citric acid cycle and the electron transport system, which occur in the __ . this process will yield __ ATP per glucose. It's a relatively slow process but is sufficient for energy supply during typical __ exercise. Glycolysis occurs in the __. glycolysis, 2, pyruvic acid, lactic acid if the activity of the muscle exceeds the amount of O2 needed then the muscle starts using __ for an ATP source. it yields __ ATP per glucose. the glucose is broken down to 2 __ __ molecules. they are further broken down to __ __. this process is quicker than the citric acid cycle and electron transport system though not as efficient in glucose use. Psychological fatigue the CNS no longer activates the motor neurons supplying the working muscles is known as what? slow oxidative (type 1 fibers) and fast oxidative (type 2 A) fibers what are the 2 types of red fibers? the fibers of a single motor unit are of the same muscle type. fast glycolytic (type 2 B) fibers what is the one type of white fibers? atrophy disuse of muscles will lead to what? annulospiral primary afferent fibers will have what type of endings? flower spray secondary afferent fibers will have what type of endings? sphincter, GI tract an example of tonic contraction is found in the __? phasic (rhythmic) is found where? no is smooth muscle attached to bone? y/n gap junctions to achieve the coordinated contraction, smooth muscle cells are connected by __ __. actin, myosin, troponin complex smooth muscle has __ and __ but does not have __ __. 6:1, 12:1 what is the actin/myosin ratio in skeletal muscle? smooth muscle? creatine phosphate, glycogen smooth muscle does not contain __ __ or __. it does not need those energy stores. actin, myosin in skeletal muscle, change occurs in the __ to effect binding. in smooth muscle, change occurs in the __ phosphorylated myosin can't bind actin unless myosin is ___ calcium-calmodulin calmodulin in the presence of calcium forms what? active myosin kinase inactive myosin kinase in the presence of calcium-calmodulin forms what? phosphorylate myosin inactive myosin in the presence of active myosin kinase forms what? Ca2+ channels calcium enters the cell of smooth muscle from the ECF via __ ___ Ca2+ __ is the major ion involved in depolarization in smooth muscle? multiunit which type of smooth muscle is found in the wall of large blood vessels, large airways to the lung, muscle of the eye, and erector pili muscles attached to hair single unit what is the most abundant of the smooth muscle in the body? visceral smooth muscle single unit smooth muscle is also called __ __ __. single unit which type of smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs of viscera, digestive tract, reproduction and urinary tracts and small blood vessels? myogenic activity nerve independent contraction is called __ __ red, oxidative phosphorylation, long slow oxidative (type 1) fibers: considered __ fibers. these are the slow twitching fibers. They get their ATP from __ __. Their fibers are used for ___ endurance types of contraction. ATPases There are 2 types of fast fibers, both of which contain higher levels of __ in the myosin enabling them to split ATP more quickly. mitochondria, myoglobin fast oxidative (type 2A fibers): these fibers are used for intermediate endurance types of contraction, both of the fast and slow oxidative fibers have large numbers of __ in them and also have the protein __. __, like Hb can bind O2. It acts like an O2 store and gives the fibers a reddish color. white, glycolysis, glycolysis, mitochondria, glycogen, myoglobin fast glycolytic (type 2B) fibers: considered _ fibers. these fibers get their ATP supply mostly from __. They are high in the enzymes necessary for __ and have few __. To supply the large amounts of glucose needed for the inefficient production of ATP there are large amounts of __ in this muscle fiber. They are the largest fibers bc they have a greater amount of actin and myosin. This enables them to produce tension that is more powerful for short amounts of time. They contain very little __ therefore are more pale in appearance. mitochondria aerobic ex will change the oxidative fibers by increasing the number of __ and capillary networking within the muscle. diameter, hypertrophy anaerobic exercise will inc the __ of glycolytic muscle fibers resulting in __. this will inc the power of contraction. primary, secondary __ synaptic cleft- indention of muscle. __ synaptic cleft- finer ridges mitochondria. ATP, creatine phosphate to repay the oxygen debt what levels have to be restored? slow, fast antigravity muscles will have a higher __ fiber content and muscles of the arms, a higher content of __ fibers. bag, chain, intrafusal neuromuscular spindle- sensory structure located in skeletal muscle, detects degree of tension in the muscle, functions as a strain gauge. the spindle consists of specialized muscle fibers--nuclear __ and__ fibers, collectively called the __ fibers. extrafusal extrafusal/intrafusal fibers have alpha motor innervation tension, length, velocity, rate the sensory receptor part of intrafusal fibers can sense ___, ___, __/__ shorter, longer smooth muscle resting length is longer/shorter than skeletal muscle? myosin filaments are much longer/shorter than skeletal muscle.