Medical Terminology Chapter 7

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CHAPTER 7

URINARY SYSTEM

MEDICAL SPECIALTIES

...

Urology

diagnosis and treatment of the male urinary and reproductive systems and the female urinary system

Urologists

physicians who specialize in clinical treatment of disorders of the female and the male urinary systems.

Nephrology

diagnosis and management of kidney disease, kidney transplantation, and dialysis therapies

Nephrologists

specialize in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease, kidney transplantation, and dialysis therapies.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OVERVIEW

...

Reabsorption

process in which other essential substances are reabsorbed into the bloodstream

Homeostasis

stable internal environment

1.

WORD ELEMENTS

Cyst/o, vesic/o

bladder

Glomerul/o

glomerulus

Meat/o

opening, meatus

Nephr/o, ren/o

kidney

Pyel/o

renal pelvis

Ur/o, urin/o

urine, urinary tract

Ureter/o

ureter

Urethr/o

urethra

-emia

blood condition

-iasis

abnormal condition (produced by something specific)

-lysis

separation; destruction; loosening

-pathy

disease

-pexy

fixation (of an organ)

-ptosis

prolapse, downward displacement

-tripsy

crushing

-uria

urine

1.1.

SECTION REVIEW

2.

KIDNEYS

Kidney(s)

primary structural units responsible for urine formation.

Renal cortex

outer layer of the kidney

Renal medulla

inner layer of the kidney

Renal artery

blood enters the kidneys through the ___.

Renal vein

blood leaves the kidneys through the ___.

Nephron

each ___ is designed to filter urea and other waste products effectively from the blood.

-ectomy

excision, removal

-tomy

incision

-tome

instrument to cut

2.1.

SECTION REVIEW

-lith/o

stone, calculus

Nephr/o, Ren/o

kidney

Scler/o

hardening; sclera (white of the eye)

-iasis

abnormal condition (produced by something specific)

-megaly

enlargement

-osis

abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)

-pathy

disease

-pexy

fixation (of an organ)

-ptosis

prolapse, downward displacement

-rraphy

suture

-tome

instrument to cut

-tomy

incision

Dia-

through, across

Poly-

many, much

Supra-

above, excessive; superior

3.

URETERS, BLADDER, URETHRA

Ureters

when urin is formed it is conveyed from each kidney through the ____.

Urinary bladder

when urin is formed it is conveyed from each kidney through the ureters and stored in the ____.

Urethra

when urin is formed it is conveyed from each kidney through the ureters and stored in the urinary bladder until it is expelled from the body through the ___ and urinary meatus.

Urinary meatus

when urin is formed it is conveyed from each kidney through the ureters and stored in the urinary bladder until it is expelled from the body through the urethra and ___.

3.1.

SECTION REVIEW

Aden/o

gland

Carcin/o

cancer

Cyst/o, Vesic/o

bladder

Enter/o

intestine (usually small intestine)

Pyel/o

renal pelvis

Rect/o

rectum

Ureter/o

ureter

Urethr/o

urethra

-ectomy

excision, removal

-ectasis

dilation, expansion

-iasis

abnormal condition (produced by something specific)

-itis

inflammation

-lith

stone, calculus

-megaly

enlargement

-oma

tumor

-pathy

disease

-plasty

surgical repair

-rrhaphy

suture

-scope

instrument for examining

-tomy

incision

4.

NEPHRON STRUCTURE

Renal cortex

outer layer of the kidney

Renal medulla

inner layer of the kidney

Glomerulus

a tiny ball of coiled, intertwined capillaries

Collecting tubule

conveys newly formed urine to the renal pelvis where it is excreted to the kidneys

Bowman capsule

capsule that surrounds and encloses the glomerulus

4.1.

SECTION REVIEW

Cyst/o, Vesic/o

bladder

Cyt/o

cell

Erythr/o

red

Glomerul/o

glomerulus

Hemat/o

blood

Leuk/o

white

Nephr/o, Ren/o

kidney

Olig/o

scanty

Pyel/o

renal pelvis

Scler/o

hardening; sclera (white of the eyes)

Ureter/o

ureter

Urethr/o

urethra

Ur/o

urine

-cele

swelling, hernia

-cyte

cell

-ist

specialist

-ptosis

prolapse, downward displacement

a-, an-

without, not

intra-

in, within

poly-

many, much

5.

ABBREVIATIONS

ARF

acute renal failure

BNO

bladder neck obstruction

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia; benign prostatic hypertrophy

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

CRF

chronic renal failure

CT

computer tomography

Cysto

cystoscopy

DRE

digital rectal examination

ED

erectile dysfunction; emergency department

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

ESWL

extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

EU

excretory utography

IVP

intravenous pyelogram

IVU

intravenous urogram; intravenous urography

KUB

kidney, ureter, bladder

PKD

polycystic kidney disease

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

RP

retrograde pyelography

TURP

transurethral resection of the prostate

UA

Urinalysis

US

Ultrasonography, ultrasound

UTI

urinary tract infection

VCUG

voiding cystourethrogram; voiding cystourethrography

6.

ADDITIONAL MEDICAL TERMS

6.1.

SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND DISEASES

Azoturia

increase of nitrogenous substances, especially urea, in urine

Dieuresis

increased formation and secretion of urine

Dysuria

painful or difficult urination, symptomatic of cystitis and other urinary tract conditions

End-stage renal disease

kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer adequately filter the blood and, ultimately, requires dialysis or renal transplantation for survival; also called chronic renal failure.

Enuresis

involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control

Hypospadias

abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis

Interstitial nephritis

condition associated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue that may be primary or due to a toxic agent, such as a drug or chemical, which results in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function

Renal hypertension

high blood pressure that results from kidney disease

Uremia

elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood, as occurs in renal failure; also called azotemia

Wilms tumor

malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in young children, usually before age 5

6.2.

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

laboratory test that measures the amount of urea (nitrogenous waste product) in the blood and demonstrates the kidney's ability to filter urea from the blood for excretion in urine

Computed tomography (CT)

radiographic technique that uses a narrow beam of x-rays that rotates in a full arc around the patient to acquire multiple views of the body that a computer interprets to produce cross-sectional images of that body part

Kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB)

radiographic examination to determine the location, size, shape, and malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder

Pyelography

radiographic study of the kidney, ureters, and usually the bladder after injection of a contrast agent

Intravenous pyelography (IVP)

radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract; also called intravenous urography (IVU) or excretory urography (EU)

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