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frescoes

watercolor paintings done on wet plaster

shrines

areas dedicated to the honor of gods and goddesses

straits

narrow water passages

polis

city state

citizens

free residents

monarchy

a government in which a hereditary ruler exercises central power

aristocracy

rule by hereditary landholding elite

oligarchy

a form of government in which the power is in the hands of small wealthy elite

phalanx

a massive tactical formation of heavily armed foot soldiers

democracy

government by the people

tyrants

people who gained power by force

legislature

lawmaking body

alliance

formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and to come to one another's defense

direct democracy

citizens take part in day to day affairs in the government

stipend

fixed salary

jury

a panel of citizens who have the authority to make the final judgement in a trial

ostracism

voted to be banished

philosophers

lovers of wisdom

logic

rational thinking

rhetoric

the art of skillful speaking

tradgedies

plays that told stories of human suffering that ussually ended in disaster

comedies

humourus plays that mocked people and customs

assassination

the murder of a public figure, ussually for political reasons

assimilated

absorbed

heliocentric

sun-centered, solar system

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