Prokaryotic cells are very small, and except for ribosomes, they do not have cytoplasmic ________.
metabolically diverse with some being heterotrophic by absorption, autotrophic by chemosynthesis or photosynthesis
nitrogen fixed bacteria
aerobic heterotrophs that are important ecologically because they supply the world's organisms with fixed nitrogen for making proteins
absorb nutrients from dead organisms and thus are important in the recycling of materials formerly part of other organisms
Few selected diseases they cause: Bacillus (anthrax); Clostridium (tetanus, botulism, gas gangrene); Salmonella (typhoid fever, food poisoning): Mycobacterium (Tuberculosis, leprosy); Pseudomonas (pneumonia, burn infections); Chlamydia (most common STD in U.S.); Rickettsia (Rocky Mtn. spotted fever); E. Coli (traveler's diarrhea, food poisoning); Bordetella (whooping cought); Helicobacter (ulcers in stomach); Haemophilus (conjunctivitis/pinkeye); Yersina (plague)
Listed are a few selected genera and the diseases they cause: Staphylococcus (boils, skin infections, toxic shock syndrome); Streptococcus (stept throat, tooth cavities, flesh- eating bacteria, pneumonia); Neisseria (gonorrhea, meningitis); Vibrio (epidemic cholera).
Listed are a few selected genera and the diseases they cause: Tremponoma (syphilis); Borrelia (Lyme's diseases).
these bacteria are ecologically important because they are photosynthetic using chlorophyll a (note: chlorophyll not contained in chloroplasts, but contained in thylakoids); contain phycocyanin (blue-green pigment) in addition to chlorophyll; can be unicellular or filamentous; some are nitrogen-fixing; contain gelatinous sheath. Examples: Nostoc, Oscillatoria and Anabaena (all filamentous)
distinguishable from bacteria by their unique rRNA base sequence and their distinctive cell/plasma membrane and cell wall chemistry.
these represent some of the most primitive life-forms on earth and live in extreme or anaerobic environments
Domain: Archaea - these release methane; live in swamps and sewage treatment plants and the guts of animals (cause flatulence). Essential to the ecology of the planet because swamp gas methane is converted to carbon dioxide, a major source of carbon for plants. Natural gas used for heating is 98% methane provided by ______
Domain: Archaea- "salt loving"; Live in bodies of water with high concentrations of salt such as the Great Salt Lake in Utah and the Dead Sea in Mideast Asia
Domain: Archaea- "heat and acid loving"; Live in hot sulphur springs such as the sulphur springs in Yellowstone National Park
Eukaryotic, unicellular to multicellular organisms that have a membrane-bound nucleus containing several chromosomes. Sexual reproduction is common. Each kingdom has specializations that distinguish it from other kingdoms.
domain: eukarya; kingdom _____ : multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic by absorption (saprotrophic), form nonmotile spores during both asexual and sexual reproduction as part of the haplontonic life cycle, lack flagella in all cycle stages
kingdom: fungi; phylum: ______ : a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a cyanobacterium or a green algae
domain: Eukarya; kingdom: _____ - eukaryotic, unicellular organisms and their immediate multicellular descendents; most have sexual reproduction. Ex. Protozoans, amoebas, ciliates, zooflagellates, sporozoans, slime molds, algae
Soil and dung molds, black bread molds, cup fungi, morels, truffles, yeast, powdery mildews, ergots, blights, mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, smuts, shelf fungi, bracket fungi, ringworm, athlete's foot are all examples of ______
Fungi are _____ ______ that is, they externally digest dead organic matter before absorbing the products
elongated cylinder containing mass of cytoplasm and hundreds of haploid (1N) nuclei; which may or may not be divided by cross walls
formed by phacogytosis; pinches off of the plasma membrane and encloses a food particle