Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

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Brief Classification of the Domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

organelles

Prokaryotic cells are very small, and except for ribosomes, they do not have cytoplasmic ________.

bacteria

metabolically diverse with some being heterotrophic by absorption, autotrophic by chemosynthesis or photosynthesis

bacteria

motile forms move by flagella consisting of a single filament

nitrogen fixed bacteria

aerobic heterotrophs that are important ecologically because they supply the world's organisms with fixed nitrogen for making proteins

decomposer bacteria

absorb nutrients from dead organisms and thus are important in the recycling of materials formerly part of other organisms

pathogenic bacteria

cause disease

bacillus-shaped

Few selected diseases they cause: Bacillus (anthrax); Clostridium (tetanus, botulism, gas gangrene); Salmonella (typhoid fever, food poisoning): Mycobacterium (Tuberculosis, leprosy); Pseudomonas (pneumonia, burn infections); Chlamydia (most common STD in U.S.); Rickettsia (Rocky Mtn. spotted fever); E. Coli (traveler's diarrhea, food poisoning); Bordetella (whooping cought); Helicobacter (ulcers in stomach); Haemophilus (conjunctivitis/pinkeye); Yersina (plague)

Coccus-shaped

Listed are a few selected genera and the diseases they cause: Staphylococcus (boils, skin infections, toxic shock syndrome); Streptococcus (stept throat, tooth cavities, flesh- eating bacteria, pneumonia); Neisseria (gonorrhea, meningitis); Vibrio (epidemic cholera).

Spirillum-shaped

Listed are a few selected genera and the diseases they cause: Tremponoma (syphilis); Borrelia (Lyme's diseases).

Antibiotic producing bacteria

Streptomycin produces streptomycin

Fermentation bacteria

anaerobic bacteria that utilized fermentation

Cyanobacteria

these bacteria are ecologically important because they are photosynthetic using chlorophyll a (note: chlorophyll not contained in chloroplasts, but contained in thylakoids); contain phycocyanin (blue-green pigment) in addition to chlorophyll; can be unicellular or filamentous; some are nitrogen-fixing; contain gelatinous sheath. Examples: Nostoc, Oscillatoria and Anabaena (all filamentous)

Archaea

distinguishable from bacteria by their unique rRNA base sequence and their distinctive cell/plasma membrane and cell wall chemistry.

archaea

many are autrophic by chemosynthesis; some are heterotrophic by absorption.

archaea

these represent some of the most primitive life-forms on earth and live in extreme or anaerobic environments

methanogens

Domain: Archaea - these release methane; live in swamps and sewage treatment plants and the guts of animals (cause flatulence). Essential to the ecology of the planet because swamp gas methane is converted to carbon dioxide, a major source of carbon for plants. Natural gas used for heating is 98% methane provided by ______

halophiles

Domain: Archaea- "salt loving"; Live in bodies of water with high concentrations of salt such as the Great Salt Lake in Utah and the Dead Sea in Mideast Asia

Thermoacidophiles

Domain: Archaea- "heat and acid loving"; Live in hot sulphur springs such as the sulphur springs in Yellowstone National Park

Eukarya

Eukaryotic, unicellular to multicellular organisms that have a membrane-bound nucleus containing several chromosomes. Sexual reproduction is common. Each kingdom has specializations that distinguish it from other kingdoms.

fungi

domain: eukarya; kingdom _____ : multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic by absorption (saprotrophic), form nonmotile spores during both asexual and sexual reproduction as part of the haplontonic life cycle, lack flagella in all cycle stages

lichens

kingdom: fungi; phylum: ______ : a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a cyanobacterium or a green algae

protista

domain: Eukarya; kingdom: _____ - eukaryotic, unicellular organisms and their immediate multicellular descendents; most have sexual reproduction. Ex. Protozoans, amoebas, ciliates, zooflagellates, sporozoans, slime molds, algae

fungi

Soil and dung molds, black bread molds, cup fungi, morels, truffles, yeast, powdery mildews, ergots, blights, mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, smuts, shelf fungi, bracket fungi, ringworm, athlete's foot are all examples of ______

saprotrophic heterotrophs

Fungi are _____ ______ that is, they externally digest dead organic matter before absorbing the products

fungi

____ have nonmotile spores that form during asexual and sexual reproduction

fungi

body of most ____ are made of filaments called hyphae

hypha

elongated cylinder containing mass of cytoplasm and hundreds of haploid (1N) nuclei; which may or may not be divided by cross walls

mycelium

body of a fungi is called the ____

mycelium

a collection of hyphae.

sporangium

a spore producing structure

haplotonic

All fungi have the ____ life cycle

wind blown spores

most fungi reproduce through the production of ____ ____ _____ on fruiting bodies

food vacuoles

formed by phacogytosis; pinches off of the plasma membrane and encloses a food particle

contratile vacuoles

pushes excess water out in animal cells

rhizopoda

Domain Eukarya; Kingdom Protista; Phylum _____ - amoeba, extension of the cells

ciliophora

Domain Eukarya; Kingdom Protista; Phylum _____ - swim with cilia

zoomastigophora

Domain Eukarya; Kingdom Protista; Phylum _____ - whip-like flagella

apicomplexa

Domain Eukarya; Kingdom Protista; Phylum _____ - gliding

plasmodium

the body of all slime molds

physarum

a slime mold that demonstrates protoplasmic streaming; branches out to reproduce

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