US History Chapter 9-12 Test Review

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Part of the "democratizing" of politics during the age of Jackson was the elimination of ________for voting and holding office

property qualifications

During John Quincy Adams' presidency, the politician who prepared for the next election by relying on his military reputation and portraying himself as losing the presidency in 1824 due to the "corrupt bargain" was

Andrew Jackson

The basic concept underlying the "spoils system" was that party workers must be rewarded with _______ ____________ after a successful campaign.

Political Office

One of the "fundamental tenets of Jacksonian Democracy" was that

Ordinary Americans an do anything

Jackson's advisers who did not hold regular cabinet appointments were called the

Kitchen Cabinet

Jackson's view of the presidency differed from his predecessor's primarily in his belief that the

the president was the direct representative of all people

Other than Jackson's personal popularity, the main campaign issue in the presidential election of 1832 was

whether not the US renew the charter of the bank of the United States

Jackson defended his veto of the charter of the Second National Bank on the grounds that the bank was _______ ____________, despite the Supreme Court.

unconstitutional

Jackson's attitude toward nullification was to _______ because of his devotion to the Union.

to oppose it

Jackson's policy toward the Native Americans was to_____________ to lands west of the Mississippi

remove them

The Native American nation forced to move from Georgia as a result of Jackson's policies were the

Cherokees

Jackson opposed John Marshall's rulings about the Cherokee Nation in Georgia because he believed no ______________ could be allowed to exist within the United States.

that no independent nation

South Carolina's challenge to the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 is called the

Nullification Crisis

The Southern political thinker who justified Southern resistance to the Tariff of 1828 was

John Calhoun

The new political coalition which emerged to challenge Democratic control in the 1830s was called the

The Wigs

The unifying principle of the Whig party was opposition to

Andrew Jackson

The Whig party's strategy in the election of 1836 was to run several candidates in the hope that the _________________ would decide the election.

house of representatives

Martin Van Buren's response to the Panic of 1837 was to follow __________ to economic troubles.

A hands off

In the election of 1840 the Whig's presidential nominee, who was a former military hero whose political opinions were largely unknown, was

William Henry Harrison

During the election of 1840, the Whigs portrayed Harrison as

living in a log cabin and drinking hard cider

Immediately after Harrison's inauguration Harrison died, was succeeded by the doctrinaire ___________, and the political climate of the country changed dramatically.

John Tyler

English authors Frances Trollope and Charles Dickens both visited the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century and concluded that Americans were

Crude

The famous book in which Alexis de Tocqueville analyzed American society was

Democracy in America

For Tocqueville, the most striking condition of American society was its

equality

In the early nineteenth century the American population was ________ about every 20 years.

doubling

The most significant development in urban population trends from 1820 to 1850 was the emergence of

new towns

A typical theme of the Second Great Awakening was that people could take their _________ into their own hands.

Salvation

Evangelist Charles Grandison Finney's success depended upon ________ through personal testimony of salvation.

emotional release

The communitarian group whose members were celibate, held their property in common, valued simplicity and industriousness, stressed equality of labor, and practiced a joyful and fervent religion was

the Shakers

Joseph Smith was founder of the

The Mormons

The Illinois town founded by Mormon leader Joseph Smith as a semi-independent state within the federal Union was

Nauvoo

The pioneer in developing methods for educating deaf people who opened a school for deaf students in 1817 was

Thomas Gallaudet

The name most closely associated with the reform of institutions for the insane was

Dorothea Dix

During the 1820s Americans' per capita consumption of ________________ increased to the highest point ever in American experience.

Alcohol

The effectiveness of the temperance movement was greatly enhanced by the correlation between alcoholic consumption and

crime

The organization of reformed drunkards which focused on reclaiming alcoholics from the gutter was the

The Washingtonians

Catholic immigrants from Germany and Ireland often objected to demands for _________ of all alcohol.

prohibition

Although involved in many reforms, William Lloyd Garrison is best known for his activities in the cause of

abolitionism

William Lloyd Garrison's views on slavery might best be described as

uncompromising

The most influential black abolitionist was

Frederick Douglas

In his autobiography and speeches, Frederick Douglass insisted that full social, political, and _______________equality for blacks was required

economic

An important factor in encouraging the growth of the women's rights movement was the female abolitionists' recognition that, like the slaves, they were born into the _________________, which destined them for menial roles in society.

a cast system

One of the few advocates of women's rights who did not begin her career in the abolitionist movement and who made a frontal assault on all forms of sexual discrimination in Women in the Nineteenth Century was

Margaret Fuller

The co-organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention and author of its Declaration of Sentiments was

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Susan B. Anthony played a prominent role in the __________________ because she was the first to see the need for thorough organization

Woman's Rights Movements

Between ______ and _______, American culture evolved into a distinctive and American culture.

1830 and 1850

The only American novelist before 1830 to use the national heritage effectively was

James Fennimore Cooper

The leading light of New York literature and author of such humorous tales as "Rip Van Winkle" was

Washington Irving

Both Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau objected to many of society's restrictions on the

Individual

In the book Walden, __________ both described his experiment of living without the products of civilization and attacked the unthinking conformity of the average American.

Henry David Thorough

The American transcendentalist who defended his refusal to pay taxes to support the Mexican War in his essay "Civil Disobedience" was

Henry David Thorough

The American writer whose works are filled with examples of wild imagination and fascination with mystery, fright, and the occult was

Edgar Alan Poe

Probably the best writer whose subject was puritan New England was

Nathanial Hawthorne

One of Hawthorne's greatest works was his grim, but sympathetic analysis of the consequences of adultery,

Scarlet Letter

__________ shared Nathaniel Hawthorne's dark view of human nature.

Mellville

Herman Melville's book which your text calls "one of the finest novels written by an American" is

Moby Dick

Walt Whitman's book of poems in rambling free verse on commonplace topics in coarse language was

Leaves Of Grass

Currier and Ives achieved tremendous success in the production and sale of charming

lithographs

One of the most effective leaders of the common school movement was

Horrace Man

By the 1850s the common school movement had succeeded in establishing free elementary schools and public institutions for ______________ in every state outside the South.

teacher training

The cultural center for American art and music in the Jacksonian America was

Philadelphia

One example of why ______________ became the center of trans-Allegheny culture was that it was in Cincinnati that the first Beethoven symphony was performed in America.

Cincinnati

The most basic goal of the __________ movement was education for democracy.

common school

The typically romantic architecture which valued irregularity of style and is represented by the Smithsonian Institution is called

American Gothic

The greatest expression of Romanticism in the United States was through

Transcendentalism

"The American Scholar" was a plea for Americans to be American by

Ralph Emerson

Most American novelists of the early national period slavishly imitated

British writers

The staunch states' rights advocate who became president when William Henry Harrison died was

John Tyler

Before Texas gained its independence in 1836, a major conflict between American settlers in Texas and the Mexican government was Mexico's abolition of

Slavery

According to your text, in the battle over the independence of Texas, the slaughters at Goliad and at _______, a former mission, made peaceful settlement of the dispute with Mexico almost impossible.

The Alamo

The leader of the Texas independence movement and first president of the Republic of Texas was

Sam Houston

Manifest Destiny might best be described as the belief that ___________ were God's chosen people.

Americans

One significant aspect of life on the westward trail in the 1840s was that it was especially taxing for

Woman

Mexico's main grievance against the United States was based upon the annexation of

Texas

In the ________________ the president led the nation into war without a formal declaration of war from Congress.

Mexican War

The campaign against Mexico City was commanded by General

Winfield Scott

The Mexican War was ended by the Treaty of

Guadalupe Hidalgo

Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States gained

New Mexico and Upper California

Slavery erupted as a divisive issue after the _________________ over the question of slavery in the territory conquered from Mexico.

Mexican War

The original advocate of organizing new territories on the basis of "popular sovereignty" was

Lewis Cass

Zachary Taylor was chosen to run for president by the __________ in 1848 because of his military career.

Wigs

In 1849 approximately 80,000 Americans migrated to ___________ because of the start of the gold rush.

California

California's possible admission as a free state caused such a furor because it broke the ______ in the Senate between slave and free states.

Balance in Power

The senator who initially organized the legislative program which became the Compromise of 1850 was

Henry Clay

When Zachary Taylor died, the politician who became president and was instrumental in achieving the Compromise of 1850 was

Millard Fillmore

The Compromise of 1850 included admitting ________ as a free state.

California

What was the public reaction to the Compromise of 1850? Mass meetings throughout the country were held to __________________ it.

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