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stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

Harry Harlow

discovered that attachment doesn't only derive from an association with nourishment; comfy parents are more appealing to infants; mother as secure base (monkeys)

Mary Ainsworth

observed mother-infant pairs at home during first 6 months; then observed 1-year olds in strange situations without their mother; concluded sensitive mothers have secure children and insensitive mothers have insecure children

strange situation

placed somewhere outside the baby's normal environment (such as a lab playroom)

attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

secure attachment

in their mother's presence, baby's play comfortably, happily exploring anything new; when she leaves = distressed, when she returns = seeks contact

insecure attachment

babies are less likely to explore their surroundings; they may even cling to their mother when she leaves = cry loudly and are upset or don't notice anything

critical period

an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

feral children

wild children; isolated or confined or wild

basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

self-concept

a sense of one's identity and personal health

imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

Konrad Lorenz

studied ducklings and imprinting; if ducks saw the first moving thing at birth, then its the mom; children don't imprint, they become attached to what is familiar to them

authoritarian parenting

parents impose rules and expect obedience

permissive parenting

parents submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment

authoritative parenting

parents are both demanding and responsive; they exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them, but also explaining the reasons and encouraging open discussion and allowing exceptions when making the rules

Diana Baumrind

her theory on parenting was split into 3 parts

adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

primary sex characteristics

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

secondary sex characteristics

nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

menarche

the first menstrual period

personal fable

form of egocentrism exhibited in early adolescence characterized by a belief that you are the only one who can experience (anything); example: "no one understands me"

James Marcia

worked on adolescent psychological development identity crisis; developed the identity status interview, proposed in 4 stages of identity statuses

identity diffusion

stage in which the young person is not currently going through a crisis and has not made a commitment

identity foreclosure

stage in which the young person has made a commitment to visions, values, and roles without having gone through a crisis

identity moratorium

involves delaying commitment for awhile to experiment with alternative ideologies and careers

identity achievement

involves arriving at a sense of self direction after some consideration of alternative possibilities

Lawrence Kohlberg

believed that as we develop intellectually, we pass through 3 basic levels of moral thinking

Carol Gilligan

worked on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics

preconventional morality

before age 9, most children have this kind of morality of self interest: they obey to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards

conventional morality

by early adolescence, morality usually evolves to a more _____ level that cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules

postconventional morality

some of those who develop the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought may come to this level; this morality affirms people's agreed-upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles

Erik Erikson

contended that each stage of life has its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs resolution

identity

one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

autonomy

toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities

initiative

young children wrestle with this concept; preschoolers learn to do this and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent

competence

children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior

intimacy

young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated

menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

Alzheimer's disease

a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning

cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

crystallized intelligence

one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

fluid intelligence

one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

Elizabeth Kubler Ross

introduced the Kubler-Ross model: 5 discrete stages of death and dying, a process by which people allegedly deal with grief and tragedy

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