Stage of mitosis when sister chromatids separate and move to opposite spindle poles.
dynamically assembled array of microtubules that moves chromosomes during mitosis or meiosis.
The time a cell forms until it reproduces. In eukaryotes, it consists of interphase, mitosis, and cytoplasmic division.
region on a chromosome where sister chromatids are attached.
The sum of all chromosomes in a cell of a given type
two (2n) of each type of chromosome characteristic
Process by which a cell duplicates its DNA before it divides.
Checkpoint gene product that stimulates cell division.
protein that structurally organizes chromosomes and part of nucleosomes.
The stage between mitotic divisions when a cell grows in mass, doubles its cytoplasmic, and replicates its DNA.
Stage of mitosis when cell's chromosomes align midway
cell division mechanism that maintains the chromosome number.
abnormal mass of cells that lost control over their cell cycle.
Smallest unit of structural organization in chromosomes; around a spool of histone proteins.
Stage of mitosis and meiosis in which chromosomes condense a become attached to spindles.
One of two attached members of a duplicated eukaryotic chromosome.
Stage of mitosis during which chromosomes arrive at the spindle poles and new nuclei form.
A gene that arises by mutation and encodes slightly different versions of the same gene product.
Reproductive mode by which offspring arise from one parent and inherit that parent's genes only
A genetically identical copy of DNA, a cell, or an organism.
Process when chromosomes exchange corresponding segments; puts nonparental combinations of alleles in gametes.
Mature female gamete
Fusion of a sperm nucleus and an egg nucleus
Mature, haploid reproductive cell
A cell that can undergoes meiosis and give rise to gametes.
one (n) of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species
except for the nonidentical sex chromosomes, members of a pair have the same length, shape, and genes.
Production of offspring by gamete formation and fertilization.
Mature male gamete.
first cell of a new individual, fertilized
Curve that results from a range of variation for a continuous trait; plotted against the frequency
alleles that are both fully expressed neither is dominant or recessive.
a range of small differences in a trait
an allele that masks the effects of a recessive allele paired with it
products of two or more gene pairs that influence a single trait
when the information in a gene converts to a structural or functional part of a cell.
specific alleles carried by an individual
two different alleles at a gene locus on the chromosome Aa
identical alleles at a gene locus on the chromosome, AA.
a pair of dominant alleles at a locus on homologous chromosomes; e.g., AA.
a pair of recessive alleles at a locus on homologous chromosomes; e.g., aa.
Heterozygote. Individual with two different alleles at a gene locus.
one allele is not fully dominant over another, the phenotype is somewhere in between
alleles are distributed into gametes independently of alleles of all other genes during meiosis.
All genes tend to stay together during meiosis but may be separated by cross-overs.
The location of a gene on a chromosome
multiple allele system
Three or more alleles persist in a population.
Permanent, small-scale change in DNA. Primary source of new alleles
a single gene can affect multiple traits.
the chance a particular outcome of an event will occur; depends on the total number of outcomes possible.
A diagram used to predict the outcome of a testcross.
allele effects that are masked by a dominant allele on the chromosome.
Member of a pair of chromosomes that differs between males and females.
A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also base-pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA.
A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with guanine in DNA and RNA.
Enzyme that seals breaks in double-stranded DNA.
replication enzyme; assembles a new DNA from free nucleotides
DNA repair mechanism
One of several processes by which enzymes repair broken or mismatched DNA strands
A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with cytosine in DNA and RNA.
a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen base, and at least one phosphate group
Technology that produces genetically identical individuals; e.g., artificial twinning, SCNT.
Describes the process of DNA replication, by which one strand of each copy of a DNA molecule is new, and the other is a strand of the original DNA.
The order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA or RNA.
somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
reproductive cloning where genetic material is transferred from an adult cell into an unfertilized enucleated egg.
A type of nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with adenine; does not occur in RNA.
removes phosphate group and inhibits mitosis
gene that affects testes and sperm