Biology Terminology - Quiz 5

23 terms by akemrey 

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ATP

One of the principal compounds used to store and release energy

Autotroph

An organism that can capture energy from the sun; ex) plants

Heterotroph

An organism that obtains energy from the food it consumes

Chlorophyll

A principal pigment of plants and some other organisms that attracts and absorbs light energy

Chloroplast

An organelle found in plant cells that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy

Photosynthesis

The process by which autotrophic organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates (effectively creating the organism's "food")

Thylakoid

A saclike, photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts

Granum

A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast

Stroma

The region outside the thylakoid membranes and inside the outer membrane of a chloroplast

Calvin Cycle

Reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds; light-independent

L.D.R

Reactions dependent on the presence of light energy

L.I.R

Reactions that do not require light energy to function

NADP+

An electron carrier; carriers excited electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules

Stomata

Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

Electron Transport Chain

A series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP to ATP

Cellular Respiration

The process by which glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to release energy

Anaerobic

Not requiring oxygen

Aerobic

Requiring oxygen

Glycolysis

The first step in releasing the energy of glucose; glucose is broken into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid

Fermentation

The process by which cells release energy in the absense of oxygen (anaerobic)

Krebs Cycle

The second stage of cellular respiration; pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide

Pyruvic Acid

The three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis

Lactic Acid

Substance resulting from the process of supplying energy during anaerobic exercise; a cause of muscle fatigue

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