Electron transport chain

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NADH FADH₂

The electron transport chain serves two major functions in respiration:
1) It is where the chemical energy of ____ and _____ is used to make ATP.

NAD+

The electron transport chain serves two major functions in respiration:
2) It regenerates ____ so that energy production can continue

electron transport chain

a series of electron carriers embedded in the cristae of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

reduced oxidized

STEP 1:
The electron carriers shift between _______ and ________ states as they accept and donate electrons.

NADH 2 hydrogen intermembrane

STEP 2:
____ provides _ electrons to the first carrier in the chain. This process releases energy because the electrons are at a lower energy state after being passed to the first carrier. The energy released is used to drive the transport of ________ ions into the ______________ space.

electrons electron carriers

STEP 3:
Moving along the chain:
This process continues as the _________ are passed to subsequent ________ ________, each at a lower energy state. The energy released with each transfer of electrons is used to drive more protons into the intermembrane space.

oxygen hydrogen

Termination: Step 4
This process is completed when the final electron carrier passes electrons to ______, which picks up two ________ ions (H+) and forms water.

stops

If oxygen is not available, electron flow _____ and NADH cannot be reconverted to NAD+.

chemiosmotic gradient

What is the point of pumping hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space? POINT 1: Seperation of charge and concentration
A ___________ ________ is established by pumping hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space.

ATP synthase

What is the point of pumping hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space? POINT 2: ___ ________

This chemiosmotic gradient results in hydrogen ions flowing back down their concentration gradient into the mitochondrial matrix. Specifically, the hydrogen ions travel back down through a protein called ___ ________

phosphorylation ADP oxidation

ATP Synthase uses the energy released to drive the _______________ of ___ molecules.

Because this ATP production relies on energy released from _________, it is called oxidative phosphorylation.

3 2

The yield is approximately _ ATP for each molecule of NADH and _ ATP for each molecule of FADH2.

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