ap lymphatic system

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ap lymphatic system

Functions of Lymphatic System

1. Immunity
a. Fluids from all capillary beds are filtered
b. Immune cells
2. Lipid absorption
a. Lacteals in small intestine absorb dietary lipids
3. Fluid recovery
a. Absorbs plasma proteins and fluid (2 to 4 L/day) from tissues and returns it to the bloodstream

Immunity

a. Fluids from all capillary beds are filtered
b. Immune cells

Lipid absorption

a. Lacteals in small intestine absorb dietary lipids

Fluid recovery

a. Absorbs plasma proteins and fluid (2 to 4 L/day) from tissues and returns it to the bloodstream

Lymphatic System

1. Lymph
2. Lymphatic vessels
3. Lymph nodes
4. Tonsils
5. Spleen
6. Thymus

Lymph

1. Water plus solutes from two sources
a. Plasma: ions, nutrients, gases, some proteins
b. Cells: hormones, enzymes, waste products
2. Returns to circulatory system via veins; essential for fluid balance.

Lymphatic Vessels

1. Carry lymph away from tissues
2. Lymphatic capillaries
a. More permeable than blood capillaries
b. Blind-ended vessels, valves
c. Found in all parts of the body except nervous system, bone marrow, and tissues without blood vessels (cartilage, cornea, epidermis)

Lymphatic Vessels

1. Lymphatic capillaries join to form lymphatic vessels
2. Lymphatic vessels: have valves that ensure one-way flow
3. Lymph nodes: distributed along vessels and filter lymph
4. Lymphatic ducts: drain tissues of body and move lymph into major veins
a. Right lymphatic duct: drains right side of head, right-upper limb, right thorax
b. Thoracic duct: drains remainder of the body

Lymphatic capillaries

join to form lymphatic vessels

Lymphatic vessels

have valves that ensure one-way flow

Lymphatic ducts

1. drain tissues of body and move lymph into major veins
a. Right lymphatic duct: drains right side of head, right-upper limb, right thorax
b. Thoracic duct: drains remainder of the body

Lymph Nodes

1. Enclosed by a fibrous capsule
2. Afferent vessels enter, lymph moves through sinuses to drain into the efferent exit vessel
3. Only structures to filter lymph
4. Substances removed by phagocytosis or stimulate lymphocytes to proliferate
5. Most lymph nodes occur in groups

Lymph Nodes

1. Functions
a. Defense functions: filtration and phagocytosis
b. Hematopoiesis

Tonsils

1. Located under the mucous membranes in the mouth and back of the throat
a. Palatine tonsils
b. Pharyngeal tonsils
c. Lingual tonsils
2. Protect against bacteria that may invade tissues around the openings between the nasal and oral cavities

Thymus

1. Plays role in immune mechanism
2. Thymosin stimulates lymphocytes to develop into T lymphocytes
3. In the thoracic cavity
4. Largest in children and shrinks as a person ages

Spleen functions & general

1. Functions
a. Blood production in fetus
b. Blood reservoir
c. RBC disposal
2. Immune reactions: filters blood, quick to detect antigens
3. Largest lymphatic organ
4. Located in upper left abdominal quadrant

Spleen: Contains two tissue types

1. White pulp
a. lymphocytes
2. Red pulp
a. red blood cells
b. lymphocytes
c. macrophages

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