ap respiratory system

Created by mcostakis 

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ap respiratory system

Respiration

1. Ventilation: Movement of air into and out of lungs
2. External respiration: Gas exchange between air in lungs and blood
3. Internal respiration: Gas exchange between the blood and tissues

Ventilation:

Movement of air into and out of lungs

External respiration

Gas exchange between air in lungs and blood

Internal respiration

Gas exchange between the blood and tissues

Respiratory System Divisions

1. Upper tract: nose, pharynx, larynx
a. Warms, filters, and humidifies air
b. Conduction of air
2. Lower tract: trachea, bronchi, bronchioles & alveoli
a. Conduction of air
b. Gas exchange

Respiratory System Functions

1. Gas exchange: Oxygen enters blood and carbon dioxide leaves (lower respiratory tract)
2. Regulation of blood pH: Altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels (lower respiratory tract)
3. Voice production: Movement of air past vocal folds makes sound and speech (upper respiratory tract)
4. Olfaction: Smell occurs when airborne molecules are drawn into nasal cavity (upper respiratory tract)
5. Protection: Against microorganisms by preventing entry and removing them from respiratory surfaces. (upper & lower respiratory tract)

Gas exchange

Oxygen enters blood and carbon dioxide leaves (lower respiratory tract)

Regulation of blood pH

Altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels (lower respiratory tract)

Voice production

Movement of air past vocal folds makes sound and speech (upper respiratory tract)

Olfaction

Smell occurs when airborne molecules are drawn into nasal cavity (upper respiratory tract)

Protection

Against microorganisms by preventing entry and removing them from respiratory surfaces. (upper & lower respiratory tract)

Nose & Nasal Cavity

1. Nasal mucosa - rich blood supply
2. Mucous blanket
3. Passageway for air
4. Cleans the air
5. Humidifies, warms air

Pharynx

1. Common opening for digestive and respiratory systems
2. AKA throat
3. Three regions
a. Nasopharynx: from posterior border of nares to posterior of oral cavity
i. Openings of Eustachian (auditory) tubes.
b. Oropharynx: shared with digestive system.
c. Laryngopharynx: epiglottis to esophagus.

Pharynx: Nasopharynx

1. from posterior border of nares to posterior of oral cavity
a. Openings of Eustachian (auditory) tubes.

Pharynx: Oropharynx

shared with digestive system

Pharynx: Laryngopharynx

epiglottis to esophagus

Larynx

1. AKA voice box
2. Glottis
a. Vocal cords and opening between
3. Epiglottis
a. Elastic cartilage that guards glottis, directs food and drink to esophagus
4. Cricothyrotomy
5. Cartilages
a. Thyroid
b. Cricoid
c. Epiglottis
d. Arytenoid
e. Corniculate
f. Cuneiform

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