status of already holding office, strongly influences a candidate's ability to raise money and is probably the most important single factor in determining success in a congressional campaign; they have stronger name recognition, easier access to media coverage, franking (sending free mail), campaign contributions, and casework.
reallocation of seats in the House of Representatives on the basis of changes in a state's population since the last census, gaining or losing seats in the House.
redrawing of congressional district boundaries within a state, based on the reapportionment of from the census.
practice of drawing legislative district boundaries to benefit an incumbent, a political party, or some other group.
composed of a majority of a given minority community and the creator's intent is likely that a member of that minority will be elected to Congress
model of representation where a member of the House or the Senate is articulating and voting for the position that best reflects constituents' views.
instructed delegate model
model of representation with the idea that a legislator, as a representative of his or her constituents, should vote in keeping with the constituents' views even if they are against the legislator's personal views.
legislators' appropriations of funds for special projects located within their congressional district
designation within a spending bill that provides for a specific expenditure
involves providing representation in the form of personal aid to a constituent or group of constituents.
an elected or appointed representative who acts as a citizens' advocate by listening to their needs and investigating their complaints with respect to a particular government agency.
process by which Congress "checks" the executive branch to ensure that the laws Congress passes are being administered in keeping with legislators' intentions.
determining which public policy issues the federal legislature should consider,
a wooden box that sits on a desk at the front of the House chamber, drafts of bills are placed here.
the practice of referring the bill simultaneously to two different House committees for consideration, abolished
the primary committee considering a bill
member with the longest continuous tenure on a standing committee receives preferences when the committee chooses its chair, used for the selection of committee chairs
permanent committees with a defined legislative jurisdiction,
specially created to consider a specific policy issue or to address a particular concern
bicameral committees composed of members of both cambers of Congress.
typically handle specific areas of the committees' jurisdiction.
the committee or subcommittee asks the executive agencies that would administer the law for written comments on the measure
gather information and views from experts, interest groups, concerned citizens.
suggested language changes and amendments, sometimes may eliminate a component of the proposal or amend the proposal.
explains the bill's intent, it could be considered by the full chamber
used to extract a bill from a committee in order to have it considered by the entire House.
one of the most important committees in the House, decides on the length of debate and scope of amendments allowed on a bill.
unanimous consent agreements
every senator needs to agree on the terms of debate.
procedural move that attempts to halt the passage of the bill
super-majority of 60 senators, end a filibuster
bills that are passed through the House and Senate but there are differences are sent here, bicameral, bipartisan committee composed of legislators whose job is to reconcile the two versions of the bill
congress has adjourned and the president waits ten days wihtout signing the bill;
Speaker of the House
serves as the presiding officer and manager of the House.
House majority leader
helps develop and implement the majority party's legislative strategy, work with the minority party legislators.
assists the Speaker and House majority leader, acts as a go-between with the leadership and the party members in the House.
president pro tempore
chair the Senate in the Vice President's absence.
Senate majority leader
job to manage the legislative process so that favored bills are passed; to schedule debate on legislation in consultation with his or her counterpart in the minority party.