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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. image generation
  2. mental rotation
  3. transformational equivalence
  4. Demand Characteristics
  5. functional equivalence
  1. a -A task in which participants are presented with a rotated figure and must discern whether the figure is normal or, say, mirror-reversed. Participants apparently must visualize the figure rotated to an upright position before responding.
    -The response time is linear with how many degrees the subject has to mentally rotate the pictures (i.e., the less necessary the rotation, the quicker the response time)
    - (Shephard)
  2. b don't know 2.
  3. c -images can be scanned, rotated, etc. in the same way as actual pictures or spatial stimuli
    E.g., "mentally" walking around one's house
    1. Mental Rotation
    a. Letter Rotation
    --when NOT told to use imagery (Cooper & Shepard, 1973)

    ***pictured: normal F and rotated F***

    --when told explicitly to use imagery (Cooper, 1976): start rotating figure; closer the second letter was to calculated orientation, faster the RT.
    b. Block Figures Rotation in 2- and 3-dimensions (Shepard & Metzler, 1971)

    ***pictured: 3D block configurations***

    c. Polygon rotation independent of stimulus complexity (Cooper, 1975)
  4. d (Kosslyn, Reiser, Farah, Fliegel, 1983)

    -a. Takes longer to construct more detailed images, or those described as having more parts, e.g., "two overlapping rectangles" vs. "five squares in form of a cross"

    Or,
    -----Four columns of dots, 3 per column, vs. Three rows of dots, 4 per row


    -b. The smaller the image size (or smaller the part/detail asked about), the longer the RT

    --does a rabbit have ears, vs.does a rabbit have whiskers? (more obvious in our image generation that a rabbit has ears)

    (also structural equivalence)
  5. e -Elements of an experimental situation that might cause a participant to perceive the situation in a certain way or become aware of the purpose of the study and thus bias the participant to behave in a certain way, and in so doing, distort results.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. -the structure of Images is like that of actual perceived objects, and can be re-organized & re-interpreted.

    -Images are analogous to 2-1/2 D sketches.
    --Images are assembled; assembly based on description (and interpretation) of component parts
    --more complex images take longer to generate
  2. (part of spatial equivalence)

    -Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
    a. Brooks (1968)
    --Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response

    RT (in sec) as a function of Task x Response Mode
    *table shown with this info*
    *(also implicit encoding of spatial information)*
  3. -Images leave out significant details, and cannot be re-analyzed for those details the way that pictures can.
    *E.g., image of a tiger does not specify an exact number of stripes
  4. -a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents; mental images can occur in many and perhaps all sensory modalities
  5. ??

5 True/False questions

  1. parallel processing-The steps in the processing of sensory information that operate sequentially, an item at a time, on the available sensory information.

          

  2. serial processing-The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 210)

          

  3. perceptual equivalence-imaging is like seeing (with a "mind's eye"); the same 'visual screen' is used
    1. Perky's (1910) tomato/leaf/banana experiment

    2. Farah (1985), like Perky (1910), found that Ss found it easier to perceive a low-contrast letter (an H or a T) if they had been imaging that letter.

          

  4. neurological equivalence-imaging is like seeing (with a "mind's eye"); the same 'visual screen' is used
    1. Perky's (1910) tomato/leaf/banana experiment

    2. Farah (1985), like Perky (1910), found that Ss found it easier to perceive a low-contrast letter (an H or a T) if they had been imaging that letter.

          

  5. quasi-picture view(Shepard, Kosslyn, Finke)

    -mental images are Analog/ Geometric representations of visual stimuli; and are "functional isomorphs" to Euclidean space (Shepard)

    -*visual imaging is functionally equivalent to seeing, with our "mind's eye"

          

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