5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- functional equivalence
- parallel processing
- intramodal interference
- conceptual-propositional theory
- analogical representation
- a States that imagery is like perception, in that images retain some of the sensory qualities of perception.
-There is a more or less direct relationship between representation and referent.
-Spatial relationships are also directly captured.
-Relations represented implicitly.
-Different kind of representation for each sense.
- b A. Theoretical Claims:
1. ALL information stored in Propositional codes
--sentence-like: CHASED (Dog, Cat)
--it is these propositional codes which do all the work when we answer visual-spatial questions?
2. All spatial information must be Explicitly represented, or able to be inferred from other explicitly-stated propositions:
BEHIND (Jim, Todd)
BEHIND (Annie, Jim)
3. All information stored is conceptually dependent.
-E.g., Piaget's children without knowledge of
Geocentric levels in tilted beaker experiment
4. Epiphenomenalism: though people may have a subjective experience of having generated an image, the image itself is non-causal to being able to answer an imagery-type question
- c don't know 2.
- d (part of spatial equivalence)
-Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
a. Brooks (1968)
--Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response
RT (in sec) as a function of Task x Response Mode
*table shown with this info*
*(also implicit encoding of spatial information)*
- e -The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 210)
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- -imaging is like seeing (with a "mind's eye"); the same 'visual screen' is used
1. Perky's (1910) tomato/leaf/banana experiment
2. Farah (1985), like Perky (1910), found that Ss found it easier to perceive a low-contrast letter (an H or a T) if they had been imaging that letter.
- -images can be scanned, rotated, etc. in the same way as actual pictures or spatial stimuli
E.g., "mentally" walking around one's house
1. Mental Rotation
a. Letter Rotation
--when NOT told to use imagery (Cooper & Shepard, 1973)
***pictured: normal F and rotated F***
--when told explicitly to use imagery (Cooper, 1976): start rotating figure; closer the second letter was to calculated orientation, faster the RT.
b. Block Figures Rotation in 2- and 3-dimensions (Shepard & Metzler, 1971)
***pictured: 3D block configurations***
c. Polygon rotation independent of stimulus complexity (Cooper, 1975)
- -The steps in the processing of sensory information that operate sequentially, an item at a time, on the available sensory information.
- (Shepard, Kosslyn, Finke)
-mental images are Analog/ Geometric representations of visual stimuli; and are "functional isomorphs" to Euclidean space (Shepard)
-*visual imaging is functionally equivalent to seeing, with our "mind's eye"
- -Elements of an experimental situation that might cause a participant to perceive the situation in a certain way or become aware of the purpose of the study and thus bias the participant to behave in a certain way, and in so doing, distort results.
5 True/False Questions
Indeterminacy → -Images leave out significant details, and cannot be re-analyzed for those details the way that pictures can.
*E.g., image of a tiger does not specify an exact number of stripes
structural equivalence → -the structure of Images is like that of actual perceived objects, and can be re-organized & re-interpreted.
-Images are analogous to 2-1/2 D sketches.
--Images are assembled; assembly based on description (and interpretation) of component parts
--more complex images take longer to generate
spatial equivalence → -Represents like pictures (not like sentences).
-Location, size, and distance are arranged in an image as they are in physical space.
--spatial relations among objects in an array are preserved
--1) Intramodal Interference
------Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
--------a. Brooks (1968)
----------Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response
image scanning → (Kosslyn, Reiser, Farah, Fliegel, 1983)
-a. Takes longer to construct more detailed images, or those described as having more parts, e.g., "two overlapping rectangles" vs. "five squares in form of a cross"
-----Four columns of dots, 3 per column, vs. Three rows of dots, 4 per row
-b. The smaller the image size (or smaller the part/detail asked about), the longer the RT
--does a rabbit have ears, vs.does a rabbit have whiskers? (more obvious in our image generation that a rabbit has ears)
(also structural equivalence)
mental rotation → -a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents; mental images can occur in many and perhaps all sensory modalities