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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. spatial equivalence
  2. serial processing
  3. Demand Characteristics
  4. neurological equivalence
  5. quasi-picture view
  1. a (Shepard, Kosslyn, Finke)

    -mental images are Analog/ Geometric representations of visual stimuli; and are "functional isomorphs" to Euclidean space (Shepard)

    -*visual imaging is functionally equivalent to seeing, with our "mind's eye"
  2. b -Represents like pictures (not like sentences).
    -Location, size, and distance are arranged in an image as they are in physical space.
    --spatial relations among objects in an array are preserved

    --1) Intramodal Interference
    ------Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
    --------a. Brooks (1968)
    ----------Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response
  3. c -The steps in the processing of sensory information that operate sequentially, an item at a time, on the available sensory information.
  4. d -Elements of an experimental situation that might cause a participant to perceive the situation in a certain way or become aware of the purpose of the study and thus bias the participant to behave in a certain way, and in so doing, distort results.
  5. e -between imaging processes & seeing

    1. Higher activity in occipital lobe and posterior cortex during imagery tasks (including dreaming), based on:

    a-Cerebral blood flow (Roland & Friberg, 1985; (but not during mental arithmetic or imaging a tune)
    -either way you do math, you do it mentally, and occipital lobe will light up
    -sometimes, when you are imaging a tune, your auditory cortex will light up. For ex: if you are listening to a song on the radio and it cuts off, you will keep singing the song, if you know it

    b-PET Scans (Goldenberg et al., 1990; Kosslyn et al., 1993) - will use more glucose
    *visual questions caused occipital cortex to light up, but factual/imperative questions did not
    *can also use fMRI

    ex: Pine trees a darker green than grass?
    -you have to generate an image of both to know which is darker.
    ex(p2): Is the categorical imperative an ancient grammatical form?
    -this question does not make you generate an image

    2. Creation of visual images activates occipital lobe (Kosslyn & Ochsner, 1994); Kosslyn, Thompson, Kim, & Alpert, 1995).

    **Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to area 17 interrupts imaging (Kosslyn et al., 1999).

    3. Many Agnosia patients (like John and L.H.) report that they don't dream, and can't image; those with achromatopsia report that they don't image in color (Farah)
    -parallel deficits in imaging and perception for many patients (ex. Oliver sachs who mistook his wife for a hat)
    4. Many Hemispatial neglect patients also "neglect" the left side of space in their images.

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. -The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 210)
  2. A. Theoretical Claims:
    1. ALL information stored in Propositional codes
    --sentence-like: CHASED (Dog, Cat)

    --it is these propositional codes which do all the work when we answer visual-spatial questions?

    2. All spatial information must be Explicitly represented, or able to be inferred from other explicitly-stated propositions:
    BEHIND (Jim, Todd)
    BEHIND (Annie, Jim)
    Therefore, .....


    3. All information stored is conceptually dependent.
    -E.g., Piaget's children without knowledge of
    Geocentric levels in tilted beaker experiment

    4. Epiphenomenalism: though people may have a subjective experience of having generated an image, the image itself is non-causal to being able to answer an imagery-type question
  3. -A task in which participants are presented with a rotated figure and must discern whether the figure is normal or, say, mirror-reversed. Participants apparently must visualize the figure rotated to an upright position before responding.
    -The response time is linear with how many degrees the subject has to mentally rotate the pictures (i.e., the less necessary the rotation, the quicker the response time)
    - (Shephard)
  4. (Kosslyn, Reiser, Farah, Fliegel, 1983)

    -a. Takes longer to construct more detailed images, or those described as having more parts, e.g., "two overlapping rectangles" vs. "five squares in form of a cross"

    Or,
    -----Four columns of dots, 3 per column, vs. Three rows of dots, 4 per row


    -b. The smaller the image size (or smaller the part/detail asked about), the longer the RT

    --does a rabbit have ears, vs.does a rabbit have whiskers? (more obvious in our image generation that a rabbit has ears)

    (also structural equivalence)
  5. -A term used in logic to describe the content of assertions. Assertions are non-linguistic abstractions from sentences and can be evaluated as either true or false.
    -The nature of ____________ is highly controversial amongst philosophers, many of whom are skeptical about the existence of _____________.
    -Many logicians prefer to avoid use of the term, in favour of using sentences

5 True/False Questions

  1. Indeterminacy-Images leave out significant details, and cannot be re-analyzed for those details the way that pictures can.
    *E.g., image of a tiger does not specify an exact number of stripes

          

  2. image scanning**key idea: images can be scanned, in much the same way as physical percepts can be
    - imaginal scanning is functionally equivalent to peceptual scanning

    -Kosslyn's experiment: participants were shown a map of an imaginary island, participants studied until they can reproduce it accurately from memory
    -instructed that on hearing name of an object on the island, they should picture the map, mentally scan directly to the mentioned object, and finally press a key as soon as they arrived at the location of the named object
    • Results: almost perfect linear relationship between the distances separating successive pairs of objects in the mental map and the amount of time it took participants to press the button
    • -in other words, participants seem to have encoded the map in the form of an image

          

  3. analogical representation(Kosslyn, Reiser, Farah, Fliegel, 1983)

    -a. Takes longer to construct more detailed images, or those described as having more parts, e.g., "two overlapping rectangles" vs. "five squares in form of a cross"

    Or,
    -----Four columns of dots, 3 per column, vs. Three rows of dots, 4 per row


    -b. The smaller the image size (or smaller the part/detail asked about), the longer the RT

    --does a rabbit have ears, vs.does a rabbit have whiskers? (more obvious in our image generation that a rabbit has ears)

    (also structural equivalence)

          

  4. perceptual equivalence-the structure of Images is like that of actual perceived objects, and can be re-organized & re-interpreted.

    -Images are analogous to 2-1/2 D sketches.
    --Images are assembled; assembly based on description (and interpretation) of component parts
    --more complex images take longer to generate

          

  5. implicit encoding-spatial relations can be implicitly represented in a picture/ image (without explicit attention ever having been paid to the spatial relations).

          

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