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7 Cognitive Psychology E2 Test

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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. spatial equivalence
  2. intramodal interference
  3. conceptual-propositional theory
  4. implicit encoding
  5. structural equivalence
  1. a -Represents like pictures (not like sentences).
    -Location, size, and distance are arranged in an image as they are in physical space.
    --spatial relations among objects in an array are preserved

    --1) Intramodal Interference
    ------Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
    --------a. Brooks (1968)
    ----------Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response
  2. b -spatial relations can be implicitly represented in a picture/ image (without explicit attention ever having been paid to the spatial relations).
  3. c -the structure of Images is like that of actual perceived objects, and can be re-organized & re-interpreted.

    -Images are analogous to 2-1/2 D sketches.
    --Images are assembled; assembly based on description (and interpretation) of component parts
    --more complex images take longer to generate
  4. d A. Theoretical Claims:
    1. ALL information stored in Propositional codes
    --sentence-like: CHASED (Dog, Cat)

    --it is these propositional codes which do all the work when we answer visual-spatial questions?

    2. All spatial information must be Explicitly represented, or able to be inferred from other explicitly-stated propositions:
    BEHIND (Jim, Todd)
    BEHIND (Annie, Jim)
    Therefore, .....


    3. All information stored is conceptually dependent.
    -E.g., Piaget's children without knowledge of
    Geocentric levels in tilted beaker experiment

    4. Epiphenomenalism: though people may have a subjective experience of having generated an image, the image itself is non-causal to being able to answer an imagery-type question
  5. e (part of spatial equivalence)

    -Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
    a. Brooks (1968)
    --Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response

    RT (in sec) as a function of Task x Response Mode
    *table shown with this info*
    *(also implicit encoding of spatial information)*

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. -A task in which participants are presented with a rotated figure and must discern whether the figure is normal or, say, mirror-reversed. Participants apparently must visualize the figure rotated to an upright position before responding.
    -The response time is linear with how many degrees the subject has to mentally rotate the pictures (i.e., the less necessary the rotation, the quicker the response time)
    - (Shephard)
  2. -a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents; mental images can occur in many and perhaps all sensory modalities
  3. -imaging is like seeing (with a "mind's eye"); the same 'visual screen' is used
    1. Perky's (1910) tomato/leaf/banana experiment

    2. Farah (1985), like Perky (1910), found that Ss found it easier to perceive a low-contrast letter (an H or a T) if they had been imaging that letter.
  4. -Elements of an experimental situation that might cause a participant to perceive the situation in a certain way or become aware of the purpose of the study and thus bias the participant to behave in a certain way, and in so doing, distort results.
  5. States that imagery is like perception, in that images retain some of the sensory qualities of perception.

    -There is a more or less direct relationship between representation and referent.
    -Spatial relationships are also directly captured.
    -Relations represented implicitly.
    -Different kind of representation for each sense.

5 True/False Questions

  1. transformational equivalencedon't know 2.

          

  2. image generation**key idea: images can be scanned, in much the same way as physical percepts can be
    - imaginal scanning is functionally equivalent to peceptual scanning

    -Kosslyn's experiment: participants were shown a map of an imaginary island, participants studied until they can reproduce it accurately from memory
    -instructed that on hearing name of an object on the island, they should picture the map, mentally scan directly to the mentioned object, and finally press a key as soon as they arrived at the location of the named object
    • Results: almost perfect linear relationship between the distances separating successive pairs of objects in the mental map and the amount of time it took participants to press the button
    • -in other words, participants seem to have encoded the map in the form of an image

          

  3. parallel processing-The steps in the processing of sensory information that operate sequentially, an item at a time, on the available sensory information.

          

  4. propositions-A task in which participants are presented with a rotated figure and must discern whether the figure is normal or, say, mirror-reversed. Participants apparently must visualize the figure rotated to an upright position before responding.
    -The response time is linear with how many degrees the subject has to mentally rotate the pictures (i.e., the less necessary the rotation, the quicker the response time)
    - (Shephard)

          

  5. image scanning(Kosslyn, Reiser, Farah, Fliegel, 1983)

    -a. Takes longer to construct more detailed images, or those described as having more parts, e.g., "two overlapping rectangles" vs. "five squares in form of a cross"

    Or,
    -----Four columns of dots, 3 per column, vs. Three rows of dots, 4 per row


    -b. The smaller the image size (or smaller the part/detail asked about), the longer the RT

    --does a rabbit have ears, vs.does a rabbit have whiskers? (more obvious in our image generation that a rabbit has ears)

    (also structural equivalence)

          

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