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Adolescence 14th Edition Chapter 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 13

compulsive behaviors

behaviors that you repeat even though they don't bring you pleasure; usually serve to reduce anxiety

the anxiety cycle

something triggers thoughts (obsessions) --> the thoughts cause fear and anxiety (physical and psychological responses) --> the person does something to reduce the anxiety (compulsion) --> the person has temporary feelings of escape which reinforces the behavior (the next time s/he has the obsession, they will do the compulsion again)

positive core beliefs

Patrick Carnes views people who were brought up in families that treated them as valued members as having

negative core beliefs

Patrick Carnes views people who were brought up in families that didn't treat them as valued members as having

meaning-centered

personality type if you have positive core beliefs; see life as a lesson and try to learn from experiences, values themselves and others

pleasure-centered

personality type if you have negative core beliefs that cause you to try to avoid pain and seek pleasure instead of healthy relationships and more effective coping (prone to addictions)

power-centered

personality type if you have negative core beliefs that cause you to get more and more power (prone to compulsive behaviors)

psychological addiction

after the physical detoxification, the "addict" no longer "needs" to use but still have cravings and may get triggers to use because there is still a ____________________

cognitive-behavior therapy

the best known treatment for compulsive behaviors

systematic desensitization

the process of slowly confronting your fears with support so that you gradually learn not to fear

exposure and response prevention

the clinical procedure of having the client first imagine they are being triggered and later actually facing a trigger while NOT doing the compulsive behavior

trigger

anything that causes the person to want to start using or acting out again

learning

process of acquiring information that produces a change in behavior; ex: learning ABC's allows you to read and write

classical conditioning

learning associations between a stimulus and a response; ex: red light means stop

social learning

learning based on watching others

operant conditioning

learning based on what follows a behavior (consequences can be good or bad); ex: studying increases grades

Ivan Pavlov

first discovered classical conditioning

Albert Bandura

first discovered social learning effects

B F Skinner

first discovered operant conditioning

reinforcements

consequences that increase a behavior

punishments

consequences that decrease a behavior

positive reinforcement

adding something to increase behavior; ex: taking a drug gets you high

negative reinforcement

removing something to increase behavior; ex: taking a drug gets rid of withdrawal symptoms

fixed ratio

schedule of reinforcement where the reward is received after a set number of behaviors; ex: video games use this type of reinforcements - you have to do specific actions to get to the next level

fixed interval

schedule of reinforcement where the reward is received after a set amount of time; ex: snorting or injecting a drug reduces the amount of time you have to wait so that you get immediate rewards

variable ratio

schedule of reinforcement where the reward is received after an average number of behaviors; ex: gambling slot machines - you don't know how many pulls on the lever you have to do before you'll get your reward

variable internal

schedule of reinforcement where the reward is received after an average amount of time; ex: sex addicts may go out to a variety of places and spend various amounts of time before finding a partner

neuron

the specialized brain cell that communicates via the action potential releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters

dendrites

the receiving part of the neuron that accepts only particular neurotransmitters via the receptor sites

receptor sites

the part of the dendrite that is lock-and-key specific and will only accept neurotransmitters that fit exactly

axon terminals

the sending part of the neuron that releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap

synaptic gap

the space between two neurons where neurotransmitters and monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes float

monoamine oxidase

an enzyme that metabolizes neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap (helps regulate brain chemistry)

pre-synaptic

the neurons that are sending neurotransmitters

post-synaptic

the neurons that are receiving neurotransmitters

excitatory

the effect that causes a post-synaptic neuron to fire it's own action potential

inhibitory

the effect that causes a post-synaptic neuron not to fire it's own action potential

reuptake

when a pre-synaptic neuron reaccepts neurotransmitters back into the axon terminals

acetylcholine

the neurotransmitter that is associated with memory functioning and nicotine addiction

endorphins

the neurotransmitters that are associated with pain perception and opiate addiction

dopamine

the neurotransmitter that is associated with reward/pleasure sensation and is all forms of addiction (especially cocaine)

serotonin & norepinephrine

the neurotransmitters associated with emotions and depression as well as LSD addiction

GABA & glutamate

the neurotransmitters associated with brain activity and alcoholism

down regulation

the process that occurs when dopamine receptor sites shut down because there is an excessive amount of dopamine in the brain (due to drug use)

comorbidity

when two or more conditions are occurring at the same time; for example, addiction and depression

50%

the percentage of adults who commit suicide linked to drug use and dependence

70%

the percentage of adolescents who commit suicide linked to drug use and dependence

prefrontal cortex

this is the area of the brain that is not fully developed during adolescence; it helps with decision-making and impulse control (explains some of the reason for the higher rates of drug related suicides)

amygdala

the part of the brain that deals with emotions and is over-active during adolescence (another reason for the higher rates of drug related suicides)

substantia nigra

the part of the brain (midbrain specifically) that produces a lot of dopamine; is highly reactive during adolescence - making them more susceptible to drug addiction

chasing the ghost

term used to describe the effort of trying to experience the original high (due to the effects of tolerance, users have to keep increasing their dosage to get the same effect)

addictive logic

this object or act can bring me happiness

addictive logic rationale

objects don't lie, let you down, judge, hurt you, and they can be trusted to be consistent and always available as well as get you high

intensity

a powerful experience of strong emotions making you feel intoxicated

intimacy

a powerful experience of strong emotions that build up gradually between you and another person

4 relationship groups

friends/family, spiritual beliefs, self, community

friends/family

this relationship group teaches you how to live and love, should give you a sense of belonging and importance, as well as "have your back" in times of hardship

spiritual beliefs

this relationship group helps teach you about a higher power, helps you realize that some things are beyond your control and how to have hope and trust that "this too shall pass" during times of hardship

self

this relationship group empowers you to believe in yourself and your ability to cope with life, to trust in yourself as someone who is worthy and capable of growth; "to thine own self be true"

community

this relationship group teaches you to think of others an give back/contribute, it also teaches you that there is strength in numbers and that "you are not alone"

slippery slope

the gradual process involved in forming an addictive personality and/or the addictive cycle; once in a while becomes once a week becomes once a day, etc.

addictive cycle

faulty thinking (addictive logic) leads to behavioral choices (acting out) which alters your mood and reinforces you to continue (slippery slope) which leads to dependence

Stages of Addiction

1: Internal Changes, 2: Lifestyle Changes, 3: Life Breakdown

Internal Changes

the first stage of the addiction cycle that includes the development of addictive logic, cravings, and starts you on the slippery slope

Lifestyle Changes

the second stage of the addiction cycle that includes regular acting out (sometimes even ritualistic behaviors), a tolerance build up, and neglecting others - your time is spent thinking about or trying to get/use your drug of choice

Life Breakdown

the third stage of the addiction cycle that includes the destruction of relationships and other roles (loss of job), full chemical dependence and withdrawal symptoms, a loss of control (trying to quit doesn't work), illness, and depression (even suicidal thoughts)

who's susceptible

people raised with affection, people raised with an addict, people with low self-esteem, people with poor relationship skills, people who find it hard to trust others, people who've been neglected or abused, etc.

the bottom

the lowest point in a person's addictive cycle; some researches think addicts have to come to their own lowest point and others disagree...

addiction

for the purposes of this class, this is a process of becoming dependent upon an object or act to alter one's mood; includes psychological and physiological symptoms of illness, a disruption in life functioning, and uncontrollable compulsive behavior

drug use

trying a drug without overdoing it

drug abuse

over using a drug; overdosing or frequent and repeated usage beyond the normal use

compulsive behavior

uncontrollably acting out a planned ritual to reduce anxiety; usually associated with an obsession (persistent thoughts)

willpower

the ability to resist temptation and delay immediate gratification for long-term goals

1492

the "new world" inhabitants (Native Americans) used tobacco; Columbus used hemp for a variety of purposes; alcohol was widely used for pain relief (and recreationally)

George Washington

This President, along with Thomas Jefferson, urged early American farmers to grow cannabis and called it "a necessity"

1830

alcoholism was seen as a societal problem and inebriate asylums are starting to be built

Binghamton

the first Alcoholic Asylum opened in 1864

1876

the U.S. celebrates it's 100th independence day and smoking parlors are all the rage

cocaine

in 1880 Sigmund Freud says this is the miracle drug

1906

the Food & Drug Act required drugs to be labeled on products

Harrison Act

in 1914 this Act put cocaine under federal control

1920

Prohibition of Alcohol

1933

Prohibition of Alcohol ends

Alcoholics Anonymous

in 1935 this organization was formed; rather than trying to control alcohol, society turned to treating alcoholism

1960's

insurance companies start to pay for the treatment of various addictions

1970's

Nixon declared the "war on drugs"

28

in 1988 insurance companies decided to limit the treatment to _______ days

just say no

in 1989 the US launched this anti-drug media campaign

2009

Obama says the war on drugs failed and promotes finding better treatment options

2012

more US states are making marijuana legal for recreational purposes

78%

this percentage of adolescents report having school work stress

64%

this percentage of adolescents report having relationship stress

45%

this percentage of adolescents report having stress-related illness

Richar Lazarus

the psychologist who developed the Appraisal Model of stress

Appraisal Model

model of stress that says when faced with a stressor, we first ask ourselves a primary appraisal questions (Is this a threat?) and if we perceive that it is, we ask a secondary appraisal question (Can I cope?); our perception determines our level of stress

Diathesis-stress Model

Model of stress response as the result of an interaction between preexisting genetics (trigger-happy sympathetic n.s.) and exposure to a stressor without coping skills

toxic stress

a level of stress so high that it causes you to develop stress related illness

prolonged stress

this type of stress lasts a long time and causes your immune system to weaken; which causes you to develop stress related illness

acute stress

this type of stress lasts a short time and causes you to go into the fight or flight response; then you settle down after the threat is over

externalizing

the coping style that puts the blame on others

problem behavior syndrome

an externalizing coping style with a pattern of being

oppositional and unconventional

...

social control theory

an externalizing coping style with a lack of attachment to others and regard for rules

hostile attributional bias

an externalizing coping style where there is a tendency to interpret interactions as being deliberately hostile or threatening to you

Hans Selye

developed the General Adaptation Syndrome as well as addressed individual coping styles

General Adaptation Syndrome

Hans Selye's model of stress (3 stages): 1. Alarm

2. Resistance 3. Exhaustion

...

internalizing

the coping style that puts the blame all on oneself

negative emotionality

an internalizing coping style where one has a pessimistic outlook and lost of subjective distress

anhedonic

an internalizing coping style where one has difficulty experiencing positive emotions

learned helplessness

an internalizing coping style where one has become passive to abuse after escape was unattainable

anorexia

the eating disorder where food intake is severely restricted to the point where the person is essentially starving

bulimia

the eating disorder where the person goes through excessive dieting but then eats excessively and usually intentionally throws up

binge eating

eating an excessive amount of food in a small amount of time; often in secret

body dysmorphia

an aspect of some eating disorder patients where they have a distorted perception of their own appearance

11-15

the age range where most eating disorders start

90%

____ of eating disorders are in female patients

depression

experiening five or more of the following symptoms in the same 2-week period of time: sad mood for most of the day. loss of interest or pleasure in activities, significant appetite and weight changes, insomnia or hypersomnia, sluggishness or slowness throughout the day, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of low self-worth, problems with focus and concentration, and recurrent suicidal ideations

third

suicide is the _____ leading cause of death amoung adolescents

25%

the percentage of people who struggle with depression

comorbidity

people with one disorder (such as depression) are often also dealing with another disorder (such as anxiety, addiction, adhd, eating disorder, etc.) -- this trend is known as _________

dysthymia

when you have symptoms of depression for two or more years

bipolar

these type of disorders include both depression and mania (decreased need for sleep, more talkative than usual, racing

thoughts, distractibility, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities, and excessively active)

...

suicide contagion

media exposure to the suicide of one person leads to the attempted or successful suicide of another

werther effect

suicide contagion was first documented in 1774 after the release of a popular book; it was called ______________ (named after the main character in the book)

Marilyn Monroe

In 1962, this famous person's suicide caused over 200 copycap suidices the month following the media coverage of her death...

self-immolation

In 2010, Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire in protest; this is called __________________. Since then, almost 100 other people have also set themselves on fire in protest.

depression inventory

this is the standard way of assessing depression

yes

Is there a blood test to assess depression?

18-24

the age range with the highest technology addiction

yes

Is technology addiction considered a "real" disorder among the general public and a large portion of professionals?

media

anything used to communicate information

type of media

tv programs, commercials, facebook, e-mail, phones, books, music, music videos, movies, posters, billboards, magazines, twitter, etc.

6 hours

the average amount of time per day adolescents spend under non-school related media influences

100

the average number of texts adolescents send each day

positive correlation

as TV programs increased, so did cases of ADHD, violence, sex & STD's, weight, obesity, etc. this is known as a _________________

no

do positive correlations show a cause and effect relationships

70

the percentage of TV shows that have sexual content

60

the percentage of TV shows that have violence

78

the percentage of teenage suicides linked to bullying

suicide

cyber bullying is increasing and has been linked with increased __________

desensitization

a diminished emotional response to negative stimuli after repeated exposure

G. Stanley Hall

American Psychologist who coined the term "adolescence", pioneered the scientific study of adolescents, and developed the Storm-and-Stres view promoting nature as having more influence than nurture

Charles Darwin

Wrote the book: On The Origin of Species, which outlined evolution and sparked the "nature vs nurture" debate; he promoted nature over nurture

Sigmund Freud

a famous Organismic Theorist and Psychoanalyst who created the Psychosexual Stages of Development which promoted biology as the primary influence on development but included some environmental influences

Erik Erikson

an Organismic Theorist who created the Psychosocial Stages of Development which promoted biology as the primary influence on development but included some environmental influences

Kurt Lewin

a Sociological Theorist who believed nurture or environment has more to do with development than nature (but looked at both); talked about "group dynamics"

corpus callosum

thick bundle of neurons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain; thickens further in adolescence which improves their ability to process information