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Vocabulary terms from unit on Developmental Psychology. Includes items from Myers for AP 2e as well as from accompanying class presentations.

zygote

stage in prenatal development from conception to 2 weeks

embryo

stage in prenatal development from 2 to 9 weeks, wherein organs and primary sex characteristics begin to develop

fetus

stage in prenatal development from 9 weeks to birth

teratogens

harmful environmental agents that disrupt proper development (e.g. alcohol)

habituation

decreasing responsiveness to an unchanging stimulus; used to assess infant cognition

rooting reflex

infant reflex wherein the baby will, when touched on the cheek, turn its head toward the direction of the touch and search for a nipple

sucking reflex

when an object is placed in the baby's mouth, he will begin to suck on it

grasping reflex

when touched on the palm of the hand, a baby will wrap his fingers tightly around the stimulus

Moro reflex

infant startle response; when alarmed, the baby will fling his limbs outward, then retract them and hold them close to his body

Babinski reflex

when stroked on the bottom of the foot, a baby will spread its toes

Jean Piaget

most famous for his 4-stage model of cognitive development

schema

concept or framework that organizes and aids in interpretation of information

maturation

physical (or biological) process of growth; believed to occur in mostly universal sequence, though timing varies from individual to individual

assimilation

interpreting new information with the context of existing schemas

accommodation

adjusting or changing one's schema's to account for new information

conservation

principle that certain properties of matter (e.g. mass, volume, number) remain the same despite changes in appearance; exhibited during the concrete operational phase

object permanence

awareness that things continue to exist even though they are not perceived; develops at 6-8 months of age

sensorimotor

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to 2) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their impressions and motor activities

preoperational

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6/7) during which a child learns to communicate using symbols (language) but does not demonstrate mental operations of concrete logic.

egocentrism

the inability of preoperational children to take the perspective of another

animism

belief, often demonstrated by preoperational children, that inanimate objects have thoughts and feelings

magical thinking

cognitive feature of preoperational children; unconstrained by adult understandings of reality, they may believe, for example, that it is possible to turn into a racecar

theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states (about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict)

categorization inability

the inability of preoperational children to group items according to rules or criteria

concrete operational

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from 6/7 to 11/12) during which children gain the mental operations that allow them to think logically about real or "concrete" events

formal operational

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development which begins about age 12 and is characterized by the ability to think logically about abstact concepts

social development theory

Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development which emphasized the importance of other people (more knowledge others) in our mental growth

Lev Vygotsky

most famous for social development theory (of child cognitive development)

More Knowledge Other (MKO)

In Vygotsky's theory, another person who possesses expertise and can help you learn something

zone of proximal development

In Vygotsky's theory, the context in which learning takes place; the gap between when a child can accomplish with assistance and when he can do something independently

stranger anxiety

fear of people other than those with whom the infant is familiar; appears around 8 months and peaks at 13 months

attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in infants by their seeking closeness with caregivers and displaying distress upon separation

critical period

time frame during which exposure to a particular stimulus must take place in order for proper development to occur

imprinting

rigid, inflexible attachments demonstrated by some animal species (e.g. ducks, sheep)

Konrad Lorenz

Nobel Prize-winning researcher famous for his imprinting studies, and for advocating the study of animals in their natural environments

Harry Harlow

presented infant monkeys with a choice between two artificial mothers; the monkeys preferred the warm, cloth mothers to cold ones with food

Mary Ainsworth

researcher who described attachment styles in infants as measured by the "strange situation" test

secure attachment

demonstrated when infants seem to view their caregiver as a "secure base" for exploration, seeking closeness to him/her and being upset at separation.

strange situation

test developed by Mary Ainsworth to assess attachment style in infants

anxious attachment

demonstrated by babies who seem constantly afraid of potential separation from the caregiver; they cling to caregivers in strange settings and display intense distress upon separation

avoidant attachment

demonstrated by babies who seem to avoid contact and closeness with caregivers

basic trust

in Erikson's model, this attitude develops as a result of secure attachment; babies come to view the world as safe & predictable and believe that others will reliably meet their needs

Diana Baumrind

researcher who developed a model of parenting styles that included authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive

authoritarian

parenting style (in Baumrind's model)characterized by high levels of demandingness and low warmth; they impose rules and expect obedience

authoritative

parenting style (in Baumrind's model) characterized by high demandingness and high warmth; these parents explain reasons for rules and are open to negotiation (with older children)

permissive

parenting style (in Baumrind's model) characterized by low demandingness and high warmth; they submit to their children's desires, make few rules, and use little punishment

primary sex characteristics

body structures that make sexual reproduction possible (ovaries, testes, external genitalia)

secondary sex characteristics

nonreproductive sexual characteristics that develop during puberty, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality and body hair

menarche

onset of menstruation; key marker of onset of puberty for females

Lawrence Kohlberg

used moral dilemmas to assess moral thinking in children; most well-known for his description of levels of morality (preconventional, conventional, postconventional)

preconventional

stage of moral development in which children seek to avoid punishment or gain reward when determining right from wrong

conventional

stage of moral development wherein individuals seek to gain social approval or maintain the social order (follow rules and laws)

postconventional

stage of moral development wherein individuals use abstract reasoning to determine right from wrong, often by citing agreed-upon rights (e.g. "the right to live") or personal ethical principles

Carol Gilligan

offered a feminist critique of Kohlberg's theory, suggesting that it does not reflect a female perspective

Jonathon Haidt

countered Kohlberg's theory with "Social Intuitionist" theory; believed we make moral choices based on emotional reactions ("moral feeling") not cold logic

trust v. mistrust

1st stage in Erikson's model; infants must learn to view the world as a predictable, safe place or face a future of guarded skepicism

autonomy v. shame & doubt

2nd stage in Erikson's model; toddlers must be able to exercise some independence or will be ashamed and uncertain of their abilities

initiative v. guilt

3rd stage in Erikson's model; preschoolers must learn to start and direct creative tasks, or they may feel guilty about asserting themselves

industry v. inferiority

4th stage in Erikson's model; children must master the skills valued by their society or feel inferior

identity v. role confusion

5th stage in Erikson's model; adolescents must develop a sense of identity or suffer lack of direction

intimacy v. isolation

6th stage in Erikson's model; young adults must form close, satisfying relationships or suffer loneliness

generativity v. stagnation

7th stage in Erikson's model; in middle age, adults must discover a sense of contributing to the world or they may feel a lack of purpose

integrity v. despair

8th stage in Erikson's model; when reflecting at the end of life, an older adult must feel a sense of satisfaction or experience despair (feelings of having wasted one's life)

Erik Erikson

famous for his 8-stage model of psychosocial development; neo-Freudian

G. Stanley Hall

founder of the APA; known for his work in developmental psych, particularly for defining adolescence as a period of "storm and stress"

emerging adulthood

developmental stage proposed by Jeffrey Arnett; period between adolescence and assumption of typical adult roles (18-29, perhaps?)

Alzheimer's disease

progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functioning; linked to deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine

cross-sectional study

study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

crystallized intelligence

one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

fluid intelligence

one's ability to reason speedily and abstactly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

social clock

culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

prospective memory

The ability to remember to perform actions in the future; declines with age

retrospective memory

involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information; not as vulnerable to age-related declines

intersex

term used to described individuals born with intermediate or unusual combinations of male and female physical features, often as a result of genetic abnormalities or atypical prenatal hormone exposure

autism spectrum disorder

A disorder characterized by deficits in social relatedness and communication skills that are often accompanied by repetitive, ritualistic behavior.

sexual orientation

An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation), or both sexes (bisexual orientation).

neurocognitive disorder

An age-related disorder caused by brain dysfunction that affects thinking processes, memory, consciousness, and perception. Formerly called "dementia".

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