Physical Science acids and bases and solutions

38 terms by AnsleyM

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acids

contains H3O+ ions, sour taste, below 7 on pH scale, turns blue litmus paper red

acids used in industry

HCL- cleans metals
HNO3- fertilizers, explosions
H2SO4- fertilizers, batteries
H3PO4- fertilizers, soft drinks

acids in the house

vinegar, asprin, soft drinks, fruit drinks

acids in your body

stomach, muscles

bases

hydroxide OH- ions, bitter taste, above 7 on the pH scale, turns red litmus paper blue

bases used in industry

NaOH- soap, dry cleaners, textiles, paper, drain cleaner
CaOH2- lime, plaster, soil
ALOH3- water purification
MgOH2- antacid

bases in the house

soap, shampoo, ammonia, baking soda, antacid

bases in your body

blood, intestinal fluids

pH

measures the concentration of OH+ ions

pH scale

measures the strength of acids and bases, 0-14, below 7 on scale is acid, 7 is neutral, above 7 is a base

indicator

organic compound, changes color in presence of acids or bases

strong acid

H30+ions

strong base

-OH ions

litmus paper colors for acids and bases

acid- blue paper turns red
base- turns red paper blue

neutralization

reaction between acid and base when cancelled out

salt

compound formed when acid and base cancel out

physical property

one that can be measured and observed doesnt change material

example of physical properties

color, size, shape, transparency, texture, boiling point, melting point, state of matter, flexibility, density, dimensions, solubility, cleavage, fracture, luster, magnetism, hardness, specific gravity, smell, symmetry

chemical property

how something reacts with something else can change into another thing

examples of chemical properties

flammability, oxidation, reaction to acid, reaction to base

density

how heavy or compact something is mass of object/volume= density g/mL or g/cm3

densities

water= density of 1
density of more than 1= sinking
density of less= floating

physical change

change in appearance or shape of material doesnt change

examples of physical change

breaking, tearing, coloring, melting and boiling point

chemical change

material that reacts to become something else

examples of chemical change

burning, oxidation, bubbling, corroding

law of conservation of matter

can not create or destroy mass/matter only can change it

solution

homogenous mixture that remains constantly uniformly mixed and has particles that are so small they cant be seen without a microscope

solute

being dissolved

solvent

doing dissolving

solubility

how much a solute can be dissolved by a solvent at a certain temperature

factors to affect solubility

higher temperature- increase solubility
lower temperature- decrease solubility
pressure
type of solvent
type of solute

unsaturated

more solute can be dissolved

saturated

nothing more can be dissolved between molecules

super saturated

holds more solute than normal due to higher temperatures

polar

partially charged particles

non polar

doesnt have charged atoms

how do solutions form

molecules in the solvent surround molecules of solute and spread them out

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