What is the general name for organs that produce hormones?
What name is given to regions that are receptive to hormones?
Melatonin is secreted by what gland?
In what specific part of what gland is ADH stored?
Posterior pituitary gland
What is the effect of TSH and where is it produced?
*Effect- thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
*Produced in anterior pituitary
What does glucagon do as a hormone, and where is it produced?
*Glucagon- increases blood glucose levels
*Produced in alpha cells on the periphery of clusters (pancreatic islets)
Which hormones in the adrenal gland control water and electrolyte balance?
What is the primary gland that secretes epinephrine?
Medulla of adrenal gland
Where is growth hormone produced?
What is another name for T3?
What connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland?
Does parathormone increase or decrease calcium levels in the blood?
Increases Ca2+ levels
Interstitial cells of the testis produce which hormone?
Formed elements consist of three main components. What are they?
Erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes (RBCs, WBCs, platelets)
What is the most common plasma protein?
What is another name for a thrombocyte?
Which is the most common blood cell?
What is another name for a white blood cell?
What white blood cell is most numerous in a normal blood smear?
How many red blood cells are normally found per cubic millimeter of blood?
B cells and T cells belong to what class of agranular leukocyte?
What value is there to a change in the percentage of white blood cells to diagnostic medicine?
May indicate diseases
In counting 100 WBC you are able to distinguish 15 basophils. Is this a normal number for the WBC count and what health issues can you draw from this?
*Not normal number, number is too high, normal basophil count is <1%.
*May indicate an allergic reaction or exposure to radiation.
What is the function of the platelet?
To aid in clotting
Formed elements constitute what percentage of the total blood volume?
In terms of volume, does the blood normally contain more plasma or more formed elements?
What is the name of a surface membrane molecule on a blood cell that causes and immune reaction?
What ABO blood type is found in a person who is a universal donor?
What is the average range of hemocrit for a normal female?
What is the average range of hemocrit for a normal male?
What percentage of the blood volume consists of formed elements?
A person has antibody A and antibody B in his or her blood with no Rh antibody. What blood type does this person have?
Person with blood type B negative is injected with type A positive blood. What will happen after injection?
Blood will agglutinate and potentially clot B antigens combine with anti-B agglutinins (antibodies)
Decrease in number of RBC in a given volume of blood or decrease in amount of hemoglobin in the blood
The heart is located between the lungs in an area known as the?
What is the name of the layer that is superficial to the pericardial cavity?
What is the innermost layer of the heart wall called?
Is the apex of the heart superior or inferior to the rest of the heart?
What is the name of the depression between the two ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart?
Are auricles extensions of the atria or the ventricles?
What three vessels take blood to the right atrium?
Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, &
Where do the great cardiac vein and the small cardiac vein take blood?
What blood vessels nourish the heart tissue?
What structure separates the left atrium from the right atrium?
What is the name of the thin spot between the atria?
The bicuspid valve is located between what two chambers of the heart?
Left atrium and left ventricle
Name the structure between the atrioventricular valve and papillary muscle.
What is the function of the aortic semilunar valve?
Prevent blood flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta
What is another name for the tricuspid valve?
Right atrioventricular valve
What cell type makes up most of the myocardium?
What adaptation do you see in the walls of the left ventricle being thicker than those of the right ventricle?
Left ventricle have thicker walls because it pumps blood to whole body vs. the right ventricle that only pumps to the lungs
How does cardiac muscle resemble skeletal muscle?
Fibers are striated
In terms of function how is cardiac muscle different from skeletal muscle?
Cardiac muscle can contract independently of neural impulses, while skeletal muscle cannot
The sinoatrial node has a common name. What is it?
Which two chambers of the heart (atria or ventricles) contract last in a normal cardiac cycle?
What two chambers are stimulated immediately after the SA node depolarizes?
After the AV node depolarizes what structures conduct the impulse to the myocardium of the ventricles?
Atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
What are the main events recorded by an ECG?
P wave, QRS complex, T wave
What electrical event in the heart does the QRS complex represent?
Ventricular repolarization is represented by what part of an ECG?
What ECG wave represents the atrial depolarization?
Why is the ECG event indicating atrial repolarization not seen in an ECG?
It occurs at the same time as ventricular depolarization which is the larger electrical event
What does a heart block do to impulse transmission in the heart?
Slows the impulse in the heart and lengthens the QRS compels of ECG
What effect does fibrillation have on cardiac muscle contraction and on pumping efficiency of heart? Which is more serious-atrial or ventricular fibrillation?
Random contraction in cardiac muscle results in numerous loci of contractions, atria and ventricles could (fine) at different rates which could be antagonistic to each other & reduce efficiency of heart
If myocardial infarct (heart attack) destroyed a portion of the right or left bundle branches what change would you see in an ECG?
Portion of ECG electrically measured events of bundle branches would be altered, would see an increase of time of QRS interval
Blood from the left subclavian artery flows into what vessels as it moves toward the left arm?
Left axillary artery
Blood in the radial artery comes from what blood vessel?
An aneurysm is a weakened, expanded portion of an artery. Ruptured aneurysms can lead to rapid blood loss. Describe the significance of an aortic aneurysm versus a digital artery aneurysm.
The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. Umbilical arteries carry a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Why are these blood vessels called arteries?
They carry blood away from the heart
What is the name of the outermost layer of a blood vessel?
What kind of blood vessels have valves?
Blood from the common carotid artery next travels to what two vessels?
External and internal carotid artery
Blood from the right brachial artery travels to what two vessels?
Right radial and ulnar arteries
Where does blood in the right subclavian artery come from?
The internal carotid artery takes blood to what organ?
The descending aorta receives blood from what vessel?
What is the general name of a large vessel that takes blood away from the heart?
Blood in the left common carotid artery receives blood from what vessel?
Name three blood vessels that exit from the aortic arch.
Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
How do the aortic arch arteries of a cat differ from those of a human?
The pattern of the arteries that leave the aortic arch are somewhat different
Name the section of the descending aorta inferior to the diaphragm.
Blood from the celiac artery flows into three different blood vessels. What are these vessels?
Splenic artery left gastric artery, common hepatic artery
Blood from the superior mesenteric artery feeds what major abdominal organs?
Small intestines, ascending colon, first part of transverse colon
What vessels take blood to the kidneys?
Left and right renal arteries
The ovaries or testes receive blood from which arteries?
Blood in the inferior mesenteric artery travels to what organs?
Lower portion of large intestine
In humans, where does blood in the external iliac artery come from?
Common iliac artery
What artery takes blood directly to the femoral artery?
Blood from the popliteal artery comes directly from what artery?
What is arteriosclerosis?
Hardening of the arteries and is caused by development of cholesterol plaque
In what part of the arterial wall does cholesterol plaque develop?
Under the endothelial layer: tunica intima
What is the vessel that takes blood to the adrenal glands in the cat called?
How do the lower pelvic arteries in humans differ from those in cats?
There is no common iliac artery in cats, as there is in humans
Which veins have names that do not correlate to arteries?
The internal jugular vein takes blood from what area?
What veins pass through the transverse vertebral foramina?
What area do the right and left external jugular veins drain?
The outer region of the head
The brachiocephalic veins take blood to what vessel?
Superior vena cava
Is the radial vein a superficial or deep vein?
Where is the median cubital vein found?
What vessel receives blood from the ulnar vein?
What region of the body houses the cephalic vein?
Lateral side of forearm & arm
Blood from the right axillary vein next travels to what vessel?
Right subclavian vein
What vessels take blood to the left femoral vein?
Left popliteal and left great saphenous
The great saphenous vein is in what region of the body?
Medial aspect of the right leg & thigh
Where does blood flow after it leaves the femoral vein?
External iliac vein
The common iliac vein receives blood from two vessels. What vessels?
External & internal iliac
What major vessels take blood to the hepatic portal vein?
Superior & inferior mesenteric veins, splenic veins & gastroomental veins
Blood in the small intestine travels to the hepatic portal vein by what vessel?
Superior mesenteric vein
In the fetal heart, what is the name of the shut between the pulmonary truck and aortic arch?
Name the opening between the atria in the fetal heart.
What cell type makes up the endothelium of capillaries?
Simple squamous epithelium
What is the name of the vessels that carry lymph from the lymph capillaries to the veins?
Once tissue fluid enters the lymphatic vessels what is it called?
What is the name of the inner region of a lymph node?
What kind of vessel takes lymph away from a lymph node?
The adenoids are enlarged ____ tonsils.
Which tonsils are found on the sides of the oral cavity?
What tonsils are located at the back of the tongue?
Blood is filtered by which lymph organ in the adult?
What part of the spleen is involved in producing lymphocytes?
Where do T cells mature?
How does the use of medical leeches work for a region that has suffered trauma (edema)?
Placed on ends of extremities and drain excess tissue fluid from the region, this decreases edema and removes debris and pathogens
What is elephantiasis caused by?
A parasitic worm blocking the lymphatic vessels, results in edema
What effect would the removal of nodes of the axillary region have on the drainage of the pectoral region?
Would cause edema of the pectoral region
Mechanisms by which blood from the deep veins can be returned to the heart.
Standing on your head & weaving support hose
The letters bpm stand for what phrase in cardiac measurement?
Beats per minute
What does a sphygmomanometer measure?
If you were to measure blood pressure, what artery would you most commonly use?
If you have a blood pressure of 140/80, what does the 80 represent?
What is the clinical threshold for high blood pressure?
When the first sound is heard during measurement with a blood pressure cuff, what is measured, systolic or diastolic pressure?
Emotions have an effect on blood pressure. Predict the blood pressure of a person who recently had a heated argument with a roommate about rent money.
Elevates blood pressure
Illness can affect blood pressure. Illness tends to increase stress responses. Predict the blood pressure of a person with a sinus headache and postnasal drip.
Elevates blood pressure
Both nicotine and caffeine elevate blood pressure. Explain how an increase in blood pressure can have a negative effect on the pumping efficiency of the heart.
What is the common name for the external flares?
The nasal cartilages are made of hyaline cartilage. What functional adaptation does cartilage have over bone in making up the external framework of the nose?
Cartilage maintains shape and is flexible. This is important for keeping breathing passages open but is capable of breathing.
The nasal cavities are separated from each other by what structure?
Three structures make up the nasal septum. What are they?
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, vomer, and the nasal cartilage
What is the function of respiratory epithelium and the superficial blood vessels in the nasal cavity?
Warm and moisten the external air, prior to it entering the lungs
Name the openings between the nasal cavity and the pharynx.
Internal nares or choanae
What is the name of the space behind the oral cavity and above the laryngopharynx?
What is the name of the structure that prevents fluid from entering the nasopharynx during swallowing?
What is the name of the large cartilage of the anterior larynx?
What is the structure that protects the glottis from fluid entering the larynx?
Which lung has just two lobes in the human?
What membrane attaches directly to the lungs?
The trachea branches into two tubes that go to the lungs. What are these tubes called?
Main or primary branch
Where is the tracheobronchial tree located?
Brachial tubular structure in lungs
What small structure in the lung is the site of oxygen exchange with the blood capillaries?
The surface area of the lungs in humans is about 70 square meters. How can this be so if the lungs are located in the small space of the thoracic cavity? What role do alveoli play in the nature of surface area?
The division of the lungs into many small sacs increases surface area. The surface area can be increased by adding more inner walls to a particular region.
Emphysema is a destruction of the alveoli of the lungs. What effect does this have on the surface area of the lungs?
It breaks down the alveoli which decreases surface area