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An introduction to : Practical nursing and the theoretical frameworks for nursing practice. A variety of basic concepts will be discussed

Nursing in the 19th Century

overcrowded,dirty, unventilated hospitals
nursing was inferior, undesired occupation
criminals & widows replaced nursing attendants
drinking on duty & bribes were acceptable

Florence Nightingale

Appointed to the task of organization & supervision of nurses during Crimean war
Called "Lady of the Lamp" because she used to make rounds at night with her lamp
Focus on whole patient environment
Beliefs: Nursing is a sacred calling, commitment to work for mankind
Major contributions: elimination of prejudice against women from better class entering nursing, moved toward nursing as a respectable profession

Growth of Nursing in America

1849 first hospital and nursing school established in the U.S
Clara Barton-first chapter of American Red Cross established and she was the Superintendent of the dept of nursing for the army
Civil War occurring:North-women took training classes from doctors, successful in the eyes of the soldiers. South-most nursing done by infantry men and southern women. Increased casualties d/t poorly trained medical corps.
World War 1-nurses moved toward public health, increased demand for nurses, army school of nursing established, training focused on "service to the patient" rather than comprehensive care

Growth of Nursing during 20th century

Monitoring of practical nursing by states began
National League of Nursing (NLN) developed a nationwide system of standardization of nursing requirements for practical nursing
World War II- continued demand for nurses,Cadet Nurse Corps was established. Civilian nursing was low pay, long shifts and atrocious. Military nursing was prestige, good pay, and opportunity for advancement

Nursing Education

First licensing of practical nurses (1914)
Practical nursing duties increased after the war
Emphasis on aseptic technique
Joint Committee on Practical Nurses and Auxillary Workers in Nursing Services recommended use of the title "licensed practical nurse" (1949). The committee differentiated between tasks of the RN and LPN called Scope of Service

Nurses in History

Clara Barton-American Red Cross. Civil War
Lillian Wald-Founder of Public Health Nursing Services visiting nurse services
Lavinia Dock-Social Reform Nurse,suffragette (feminist), wrote "History of Nursing"and comprised the first Nurse Drug Manual
Florence Nightingale -Hospital reformer, volunteered in Crimean War, provided sanitary conditions, Lady with the lamp

Florence Nightingale

(1820 to 1910) Considered the founderr of organized, professional nursing. Her contributions to the reforms in the British Army Medical Corps improving sanitiation in India and public health in Great Britian.
She discoverd patient feeling better after washng and drying

Dorthea Dix

Secretary of War Simon Cameron appointed a schoolteacher to organize military hospitals and provide medical supplies to the Union Army soldiers during civil war

Mary Seacole

Jamaican nurse learned the ar of caring from her mother. She was nicnamed "Doctress" because of her administration of care to the sick in a lodging house in Kingston. Denied the right to join Florence in the Crimean War. She has experience in Cuba, Panama during Yellow Fever and Cholera epidemics.

Clara Barton

Founded the red cross

Compact State

a term of law. a state that has established an agreement with other states allowing nurses to practice within the state without an additional license. The interstate compacts are enacted by state legislatures

slander

False charges and malicious oral statements about someone

DRGs (diagnosis-related groups)

refers to reimbursement for health care services based on a prdetermined fixed price-per-case or diagnosis...

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPPA)

The intent of this law is to ensure confidentiality of the patient's health information. The statute sets guidlines for maintining the privacy of health data

International Council of Nursing (ICN)

Professional organization that represents nurses incountries around the world

Advanced practice nurse (APN)

Legal title for nurses prepared by education and competence to perform independent praactice

Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Law (EMTALA)

Federal statute enacted in 1986 to prohibit refusal of care for indigent and uninsured patients seeking medical assitance in an Emergency Room. This low proibits the transfer of unstable patients, including women in labor

EMTALA penalties for violations

$25-50K

Medicare

enacted in 1965, federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older

liable

held legally responsible

Advance directives

written or verbal instructions created by the patien describing specific wishes bout medical care in the event he or she becomes incapcitated or incompetent (example Living wills and durable power of attorney)

Durable power of attorney for health care

an instrument that authorizes nother person to act as one's agent in decisions regarding health care if the person becomes incompetent to mae his or her own decisions

assault

is causing the person to fear that he or she will be touched without constent.

battery

is the unauthorized or the actual harmful or offensive touching of a person.

veracity

filled with truth and accuracy

autonomy

the principle of respect for a person, is sometimes labeled as the primary moral principle

bioethics

Branch of study of moral issues, questions, & problems arising in the practice of medicine & biomedical research is called

outcomes approach

...

pratice-based competency outcomes

...

never events

events that should never have happene

core compentencies

Skills, knowledge, and abilities that employees must possess in order to successfully perform job functions that are essential to business operations.

What year was nursing represented in all 4 branches

...

competency

the ability to clearly demonstrate the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and prefessional judfment required to practice safely and ethically in a disignated role and setting

Clinical pathways or Critical Pathways

a clinical pathway or critical pathway typically defines the optimal sequencign and timing of interventions by physicians, nurses, and other interprofessional team members wen providing care for a patient with a particular diagnosis or procedure

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