5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Ad hominem/tu quoque
- Biased Sample
- Slippery Slope
- Red Herring
- Weak Analogy
- a if two things that are being compared aren't really alike in th relevant respects, the analogy is a weak one, and the argument that relies on it is a weak analogy.
- b focus attention on people rather than on arguments or evidence. the conclusion is usually, "you shouldn't believe so and so." becaus they are a bad person (ad hominem) or a hypocrite (tu quoque.)
- c partway through an argument, the arguer goes off on a tangent to distract the audience. They often return.
- d When a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is biased or prejudiced. 1) Sample S, which is biased, is taken from Population P. 2) Conclusion C is drawn about Population P based on S. Known variously as Inductive Generalization, Generalization, and Statistical Generalization.
- e A chain reaction will take place, but there's really not enough evidence for that assumption. The arguer asserts that if we take even one step, we will slide all the way down the hill.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- When we try to gt readers to agree with us simply impressing them with a famous name or by appealing to a supposed authority who really isn't much of an expert.
- Making assumptions about a whole group or range of cases based on a sample that is inadequate. Causes stereotypes.
- an arguer tries to get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone.
- The arguer takes advantage of th desire most people have to b liked and to fit in with others and uses that desire to try to get the audience to accept his or her argument.
- The threat of rejection by one's peers is substituted for evidence in an argument. 1) Person P is pressured by his/her peers or threatened with rejection. 2) Therefore person P's claim X is false.
5 True/False Questions
Appeal to Ignorance → Ridicule or mockery is substituted for evidence in an argument.
1) X, is some from of ridicule is presented. 2) Therefore, claim C is false.
Mocking a claim doesn't show that it is false.
Begging the Question → trying to discredit what a person might later claim by presenting unfavorable information about the person. 1) Unfavorable info about person A is presented. 2) Any claims a person makes will be false.
Appeal to Tradition → occurs when it is assumed that something is better or correct simply because it is older or traditional. 1) X is old or traditional. 2) Therefore X is correct or better.
Appeal to Belief → The fact that many people believe in a claim doesn't mean its true. There are some cases when the fact that many people accept a claim as true is an indication that it is true. 1) Most people believe that a claim, X is true. 2) Therefore X is true.
equivocation → The threat of rejection by one's peers is substituted for evidence in an argument. 1) Person P is pressured by his/her peers or threatened with rejection. 2) Therefore person P's claim X is false.