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Apoptosis

Programmed cell death

Genome

The complete genetic material contained in an individual. In Eukaryotes; divided into chromosomes

Chromatin

The DNA and protein that make up a chromosome

Nucleosomes

The chromatin is arranged into these in eukaryotic cells. Enable cell to pack a lot of DNA into small space

Centromere

Two identical chromatids (=a chromosome) are connected by this piece of DNA

Diploid cell

Contains two full sets of chromosomes, one from each parent

Haploid

Cell that contain only one set of chromosomes

Germ cells

Sperm and egg cells which produce haploid gametes by meiosis

Somatic cells

Most cells in the body. These divide by mitosis

Cell cycle

Sequence of events in which a cell prepares to divide (interphase), divides genetic material (mitosis), or divides its cytoplasm (cytokinesis)

G 1 Phase

During Interphase of mitosis, this is the primary growth stage. The cell grows, carries out basic functions, and produces molecules needed to build new organelles and other things it will need if it divides

G 0 Phase

During Interphase of mitosis, a cell here continues to function, but does not replicate DNA or divide. Most cells in body are in this stage. Brain cells permanently are (=no reproducing brain cells)

S Phase

During Interphase of mitosis, the cell here replicates its genetic material. At the end, each chromosome consists of two attached sister chromatids

G 2 Phase

During Interphase of mitosis, the cell here prepares to divide, producing the proteins that will coordinate the movements of the chromosomes during mitosis. DNA winds up tightly and condensation begins

Mitotic Spindle

A portion of the cytoskeleton that pulls apart the chromosomes in anaphase

Centrosomes

There are two of these structures and they organize the protein subunits of the mitotic spindle

Kinetochores

In Mitosis, these attatch the chromosomes to the mitotic spindle

Prophase

In this stage of Mitosis, chromosomes condense, the nucleus disassembles, and the mitotic spindle forms.

Prometaphase

In this stage of Mitosis, the nuclear envelope breaks up and moves out of the way and spindle fibers attatch to kinetochores

Metaphase

In this stage of Mitosis, spindle fibers align replicated chromosomes down the cell's equator

Anaphase

In this stage of Mitosis, the chromatids of each replicated chromosome separate, sending a complete set of genetic instructions to each end of the cell

Telophase

In this stage of Mitosis, finally, the spindle breaks down and nuclear envelopes form

Cytokinesis

The physical separation of the two daughter cells, usually beginning in anaphase or telophase.

Cleavage Furrow

This indention around the equator of the cell forms during cytokinesis of an animal cell, indicating the coming separation

Cell Plate

This separation between the daughter cells of a plant marks where a new cell wall will form

Growth Factors

External molecular signals that stimulate cell division

Checkpoints

These occur during the cell cycle and allow the cell to ensure that each stage of the cell cycle is complete before the next begins. Either the cycle moves one, repairs are made, or apoptosis is induced

Telomeres

DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes that track the number of divisions a cell has undergone. When these become very short, division ceases. Failure to shorten and divide can lead to cancer

Telomerase

An enzyme that adds DNA to telomers in some cells.

Tumor

This structure results from excess cell division or deficient apoptosis.

Malignant Tumor

This kind of tumor infiltrates nearby tissues and metastasizes if it reaches the bloodstream

Cancer Cell

This harmful cell as an altered surface, lost specialization, no contact inhibition, and divides uncontrollably

Oncogene/ Tumor suppressor Gene

Too many__/not enough___ genes can result in cancer

Cancer Treatments

Radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery

Caspases

These enzymes destroy an apoptotic cell

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