The main constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere is
Saturn cloud layers are much thicker than those of Jupiter because Saturn has
Both Jupiter and Saturn
have liquid metallic hydrogen in their interiors.
rotate very rapidly than the terrestrial planets.
emit more energy than they absorb from the Sun.
Correct: All of the above.
Jupiter and the other jovian planets are noticeably oblate because they have
rapid rotation and a fluid interior.
What is the probable source of the variations in Jupiter's belts and zones?
differential rotation and underlying zonal flow
What is the source of Jupiter's large magnetic field?
metallic hydrogen swirling in its interior
Saturn radiates even more excess energy than Jupiter because
helium rain gives off heat as it falls toward Saturn's center.
The two outer jovian planets appear bluish in color because
methane absorbs red light.
The magnetic fields of which two planets are most unusual?
Uranus and Neptune
The most famous and long lasting storm in the solar system is Jupiter's ________.
the Red Spot
Jupiter is largest and brightest in our skies when seen at (in) ________ with respect to the Sun and the Earth
Compared with Jupiter and Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have
very strange magnetic field pole directions with respect to their rotation axes.
The Great ________ Spot of Neptune was striking in 1989, but gone by 1995.
The most abundant element in Jupiter's atmosphere is ________.
The outer cores of Jupiter and Saturn are made of liquid metallic__________.
The composition of Saturn's ring particles is predominantly water ice.
Titan's surface is obscured by thick clouds of ammonia ice.
As their distance from Jupiter increases, the four Galilean satellites show a consistent
decrease in density.
The surface of which jovian moon most resembles the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean?
What is thought to cause Io's volcanism?
tidal stress from Jupiter and Europa
The Roche limit is defined as the critical
distance from a planet, inside of which a moon can be tidally destroyed.
Which of the Uranian moons displays the widest range of surface terrains, suggesting some catastrophic disruption?
Many astronomers believe Pluto is perhaps best classified as
a large Kuiper belt object.
The surface of Europa is most like the Earth's
The Cassini Division is a gap in Saturn's rings caused by
gravitational interaction with Mimas
How was the ring of Jupiter discovered?
by Voyager I as it passed Jupiter
The rings of Neptune
often appear as clumpy ring arcs, rather than complete and symmetrical rings.
appear both narrow and diffuse.
all lie within Neptune's Roche limit.
were confirmed by Voyager 2 in 1989.
All of these are correct.
Neptune's moon Triton shows
volcanic features similar to those on Io.
For a moon the same density as its planet, the Roche limit lies at approximately ________ times the radius of its planet
The visible light we see from our Sun comes from which part?
The rotation of the Sun is
fastest at the equator, slower at mid-latitudes, and slowest near the poles.
The density of the Sun is most similar to that of
What two energy transport mechanisms, in order from outside the core to the surface, is found in the Sun?
radiative diffusion, convection
The temperature in the surface of the Sun is 5800 K. What is the expected dominant wavelength of the Sun?
What is surprising about the atmosphere of the Sun?
The temperature of the Sun's atmosphere, after falling above the photosphere, rises again to reach very high values high in the atmosphere.
What is the explanation for the bright cells of photospheric gases that make up the cellular granulation pattern seen on the visible surface of the Sun?
The cells are the tops of blobs of hot gas that have risen from the Sun's convective zone.
Spectral lines observed in the granules seen at the center of the Sun's disk are
blueshifted near the center of the granule and redshifted near the edge of the granule.
A visible light spectrum of the Sun reveals many dark absorption lines. These lines are caused by photon absorption, which takes place in the
The proton-proton cycle involves what kind of fusion process?
hydrogen (H) into helium (He)
The number of sunspots and solar activity in general peaks
every 11 years.
The solar neutrino problem refers to the fact that astronomers
detect only one-third the number of neutrinos expected by theory.
The solar winds blow outward from
In the proton-proton cycle, the helium atom and neutrino have less mass than the original hydrogen. What happens to the lost mass?
it is converted to energy (E = mc2) (E equals the mass times the velocity of light squared.)
The solar wind is made up primarily of
hydrogen nuclei and electrons, some He nuclei.
Nuclear fusion is the
combining of light nuclei (e.g., hydrogen) to produce heavier nuclei (e.g., helium) with a resultant release of energy.
The core of the Sun, in which the Sun's thermonuclear energy is produced, takes up about
about 1/4 of the Sun's radius.
Stellar parallax is used to measure the
distance of stars
The absolute magnitude of a star is its brightness as seen from a distance of
Two stars both have parallaxes of 0.023 arseconds, but star A has apparent magnitude 2.3, while star B is magnitude 7.3. Which statement is true?
Star A is both 100 times brighter and more luminous than star B
The key difference between the spectra of B stars and G stars is
B stars show strong hydrogen lines; G stars show weaker hydrogen lines.
In general, what can be said about type O and B stars compared to type K and M stars.
They are hotter and younger
On the H-R diagram, red supergiants like Betelguese lie
at the top right
How can we tell that some stars are relatively close Earth in the sky?
The stars appear to move periodically back and forth against the background stars because of Earth's movement around the Sun.
The surface temperature of a nearby star can best be determined from spectral classification by examining the
pattern of spectral absorption lines from various atoms.
What is spectroscopic parallax?
distance to a star measured using the spectral luminosity class of the star and the inverse square law
Which important stellar parameter can be derived from the study of binary stars mutually bound to each other by gravitational forces?
Some regions of the Milky Way's disk appear dark because
stars in that direction are obscured by interstellar dust.
When a star's visible light passes through interstellar dust, the light we see
is dimmed and reddened.
Interstellar gas is composed primarily of
90% hydrogen, 9% helium, and 1% heavier elements.
The 21-centimeter radiation is important because
its radio waves pass unaffected through clouds of interstellar dust.
All stars in a stellar cluster have roughly the same
What two things are needed to create an emission nebulae
hot stars and interstellar gas, particularly hydrogen
The average temperature of the typical dark dust cloud is about
The single most important determinant of the temperature, density, radius, luminosity, and pace of evolution of a protostar is its
The distinctive color of a reflection nebula is
blue, caused by the scattering of light from dust grains.
What is a protostar?
sphere of gas after collapse from an interstellar cloud but before nuclear reactions have begun