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absorption spectrum

A graph of the relative ability of a pigment to absorb different wavelengths of light

Action Spectrum

A graph that depicts the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process.

anabolic reactions

Metabolism in which large molecules are constructed form small ones.

Alternative catabolism

anoxygenic photosynthesis

Bacterial photosynthesis that does not use water for an electron donor and does not release oxygen as a water product.

ATP synthetase

Complex enzyme, in the inner mitochondrial membrane, that permits protons to re-enter the mitochondria and synthesizes ATP using the released energy.

Bacteriochlorophylls

light harvesting pigment involved in bacterial photosynthesis

C3 (calvin/Benson) cycle

One type of stroma reaction

C4 metabolism

A set of metabolic reactos in which carbon dioxide is fixed temporarily into organic acids that are transported to bundle sheaths, where tehy release the carbon dioxide and C3 photosynthesis occurs

chemiosmotic phosphorylation

The synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate using the inergy of an osmotic gradient and a gradient of electrical charge; occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondria

chlorophyll

pigment involved in capturing the light energy that drices photosynthesis; found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)

A metaqbolism in which carbondioxide is absorbed at night and fixed temporarily into organic acids during daytime, the acids break down, carbon dioxide is released, and C3 photosynthesis occurs

cyclic electron transport

Teh flow of electrons form P700 back to plastoquinone in photosynthesis, such that there is proton pumping but no synthesis of NADPH

alternative: noncyclic electron transport

cytochromes

small electron carriers that contain iron

Electron transport chain

A series of electron carriers that transfer electrons form a donor which becomes oxidized to a receptor which becomes reduced

entropy

A mesure of disorder in a system

gluconeogenesis

Formation of glucose form 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde

green house effect

the natural heating process of a planet, such as Earth, by which gases in the atmosphere trap thermal energy.

heterotrophs

An organism that obtains its carbon form organic molecules not form carbon dioxide

Compare: autotroph

light compensation point

The level of illumination at which photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide just matches respiratory loss.

light dependent reaction

set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to prduce ATP and NADPH

noncyclic electron transport

The flow of electrons from water to NADPH during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis

Alternative: cyclic electron transport

oxidized state

A measure of the number of electrons added to or removed from a molecule during an oxidation reduction reaction

oxidative phosphorylation

The formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate, powered by energy released through respiration

oxidized compounds

often (but not always) contain a great deal oxygen

oxygenic photosynthesis

Oxygen is liberated as a waste product, oxidize water to reduce NADP and make NADPH, produces Oxygen and protons, light absorbed twice to span energy gap from H2O to NADP

ozone

a colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water

3-phosphoglyceraldehyde

...

photoautotrophs

are photosynthsizers, use light for energy, and CO2 as carbon source

photons

the light quanta, behave like particles

photophosphorylation

The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis

photoresperation

The oxidation of phosphoglycolate produced when RuBP carboxylase adds oxidation, not carbon dioxid, to RuBP

photosystem 1

The pigments and electron carriers that transfer electrons from water to P700 to NADPH

photosystem 2

The pigments and electron carriers that transfer electrons from P700 on photosystem 1

pigment

any material that absorbs certain wavelengths specifically and therefore has distinctive color is a ___________.

plastocyanin

A copper-containing electron carrier.

plastoquinones

A class of lipid-soluble electron carriers.

quality of sunlight

refers to the colors or wavelengths it contains

quantum

A partical of electromagnetic energy

synonym: photon

reaction center

A special cholorphyll a molecule actually involved in the transfer of electrons in photosynthesis

reduced compounds

...

reducing power

...

ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

acceptor molecule reacts with a molecule of carbon dioxide

RUBISCO

synonym for RuBP cargoxylase
RuBP carboxylase the enzyme in photosynthesis that carbonylates RuBP thus bringing carbon into the plant's metabollism

stroma

...

stroma reaction

in plant photosynthesis the set of reactions that occur in stroma and are not direclty powered by light

alternative: light dependent reactions

substrate-level phosphorylation

The formation of ATP from ADP by having a phosphate group transferred to it form a substrate molecule.

thylakoid lumen

...

Z scheme

...

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