Capital of Charlemagne's empire. A city in present-day Germany.
Italian monk; founder of the Benedictine Order.
A large or important Christian church.
King of the Franks from 768-814, and emperor of Rome from 800-814.
A city in northwestern France, noted for its cathedral.
A religious community in which women, or nuns live and pray.
Any of the journeys and battles undertaken by European Christians between 1095 and 1270 to win control of the Holy Land (Palestine) form the Muslims.
The process of clearing the land of forests, often to make space for farms and cities.
Part of the United Kingdom, on the island of Great Britain.
A large land mass that includes the continents of Europe and Asia.
Starting in Europe around 800 AD, a system of organizing and governing society based on land and service.
In the Middle Ages, a property given to a vassal in exchange for his loyalty.
Francis of Assisi
Italian monk who founded the Franciscan order; he devoted his life to serving the poor and the sick.
In the Middle Ages, an organization of workers in a trade or craft that set standards and protected the interests of its members.
King John I
King of England for AD 1199-1216. In 1215 he signed the Magna Carta, giving more rights to British nobles.
In the Middle Ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor.
A legal document written by English lords in 1215 that stated certain rights and limited the power of the king.
In the Middle Ages, a large self-sufficient estate granted to a lord and worked by serfs.
A period of European History between AD 500 and about 1500's.
A community in which monks lead lives devoted to religion.
Able to be traveled by boats or ships.
A region in northwestern France on the English Channel.
North European Plain
A large, fertile area that extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains.
A large arm of the Atlantic Ocean, between Great Britain and Continental Europe.
A woman who devotes her life to religion, often living in a convent.
A terrible disease that spreads quickly and kills many people.
Pope Urban II
Pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims.
A woman or man considered by a religious group to be especially holy.
A river that flows from eastern France northward into the English Channel.
In the Middle Ages, a person who was bound to work on a noble's manor.
Mild, moderate in temperature.
In the Middle Ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty.
William the Conquerer
Norman King; in 1066 he defeated Harold, the Anglo-Saxon king to become the first Norman king of England.