endocrine system

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endocrine system

The second major controlling system of the body that acts with the nervous system. It employs more slowly acting chemical messengers into the blood to be transported throughout the body.

hormones

alter cellular activity, increase or decrease normal process, do not stimulate processes.

how hormones work

target organ thru out body have special hormone specific sensors, circulating in bloodstream bind with their specific sensor on targe organ

after hormone binds with target area

affects the cell in 1 of 3 ways, changes the selective permaeability of target cell membrane, activates or deactivates enzymes that are present, stimulates DNA to produces instructions for making particular enzymes

exocrine

the type of gland who secrete products into ducts that empty onto surface of coverings or lining epithelium

pituitary gland

An endocrine gland at the base of the hypothalamus; consists of a posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), which stores and releases two hormones produced by the hypothalamus, and an anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), which produces and secretes many hormones that regulate diverse body functions. Also called hypophysis gland and master gland

anterior pituitary

...also known as Adenohypophsis, made up by Glandular Tissue, all of its hormone are protein hormones

STH

somatotropin hormone;hormone that stimulates growth of long bones and skeletal muscle and converts protein to glucose, Also known as Growth hormone(GH), metabloic from anterrior pituitary

Hyposecretion of STH or GH

children= dwarfism( normal body proportions but minature)

Hypersecretion of STH or GH

children= gigantism (8-9 feet tall)
adults= acromegaly (enlargement and thickening of bones in hands, feet, & face)

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex regulates the production of cortisol(steriod hormone) from anterior pituitary

TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

stimulates thyroid gland to increase secretions of thyroid hormones(thyrotropin) controls the growht of thyroid gland from anterior pituitary

PRL or LTH Prolactin or Lactogenic Horomone

promotes breast tissue growth, stimulation and maintence of lactation(milk in breasts) prolactin secretion stimulated by baby sucking/feeding from anterior pituitary

FSH or Follicle Stimulating Hormone

stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and estrogen secretion
stimulates sperm development in testes
hyposecretion=lack of sexual development, sterillity from anterior pituitary

LH Luteinzing and ICSH Interestitial Cell Stimulating Hormone

triggers ovulation & secetion of progesterone and some estrogen
triggers testorsterone secretion from anterior pituitary

MSH Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

regulates the pigment of skin from anterior pituitary

Gonadotropic Hormones

FSH= follicle stimulating hormone
LH= Luteinizing Hormone
can be stimulated by fertillity drugs which can results in multple births

Releasing Factor

produced by hyothalamus
stimulates anterior pituitary to

posterior gland also called

neurohypophsis

cause of type 2 diabtes mellitus

decrease in insulin production

insulin

is made by beta cells in pancreas
has opposite effect of glucagon
decrease the blood glucose level

T4 to be produced diet must contain dufficeitn amount

iodine

exocrine glands do not

stimulate redceptors in target cells

thyroid gland produces

T3, T4, and calcitonin

endocrine gland

gland releases its secretion into blood

target organ

organ with a receptor for specific hormone

exocrine gland

type of gland releases secretion into a duct

hormone

chemical released by endocrine gland

releasing factor/hormone

substances produced by hypthalmus affect functioning of anterior pituitary gland

adenophypophysis

part of pituitary gland made of glandular tissue

ACTH

stimulates release of adrenal cortex hormone

glucagon

causes an increase in blood glucose level

insulin

causes drop in blood glucose level

calcitonin

causes reduction in blood calcium level

TSH

stimulates release of thyroid hormone

parathyroid hormone

causes increase in blood calcium level

oxytocin

causes contraction of pregant uterus

thyroxine

stimulates cell metabolism

melatonin

hormone that may assist body regulating internal clock

ADH

hormone released by posterior gland accelerates reabsorption of water from urine, hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus

FSH

hormone stimultes primary ovarian follicle to start growing in women

epinephrine

hormone assists body's fight or flight response

luteinizing hormone

also called ovulating hormone

prolactin

hormoen in women stimulates breasrs to secrete milk

oxytocin

released by posterior pituitary gland
stimulates uterine contraction
uses postive feedback mechanism

gonadtropic hormone

FSH and LH

protein

major hormone in body

target area of ADH

kidneys

decreased FSH level

sterility in both men and women

goiter cause

decrease in iodine level

gonads

testes

gonads exocrine function

produce sperm

gonads edocrine function

produce testosterone

stimulation of testes produce

testosterone by anterior pituitary

placenta

temporary organ

HCG

produced by placenta, human chorionic gonadotropins until birth

corpus luteum

quiets uterus

purpose of reproductive system

survival of human species
sexual identity determined at conception
y = boy x= girl

female gonads

ovaries

male gonads

testes

gametes

sex cells
female=ova male=sperm

cryptorchidism

undesecended testes one or both

peyonie's disease

fibrous tissue develops within penis causes curvature middle or older men

glans penis

enlarged tip covered by foreskin (prepuce0

scotum/scotal sac

houses the testes

penis

delivers sperm to female, carries both sperm and urine

corpora cavernosa

erectile tissue two dorsal columns

corpus sponggiosum

ventral column surrounding urethra allows for erection

external genitalia

scotum and penis

hyposecretion of HCG

miscarriage

gonads 2 steroid hormone

estrogen and progersterone controlled by anterior pituitary gland

progesterone

secreted by corpus luteum, helps menstrual cycle, helps prepare for lactation, quiets urterus during pregnancy

adrenal medulla secretes 2 protein hormone

catecholamin's=epinephrine and norepinepphrine

pineal body or gland

located middle brain, attached roof of 3rd ventricle, exact function unclear, begins to atrophy at 7yrs. then replaced by fibrous tissue

pineal body or gland secrets 2 hormones

melatonin=inhibits reproductive system& in sleep-awake cycle
adrenoglomerulotropin=stimulates adrenal cortex release aldosterone(increases na retention)

thymus

lies mediastinum posterior to sternum between lungs
composed largely of lymphocytes
atrophies during childhood

thymosin

group of several hormones that play important role in development of body's immune system

addison's disease

decrease functioning or production of adrenal cortex hormone
hyposecretion of mineralocorticoids and gluucocortcoids
decrease reabsorption of na and cl in renal tubules

cushing syndrome

excessive productioon of ACTH(adrenocorticotropic hormone)
hypersecretion of glucocorticoids=high B/P, moon face, hyperglycemia, weight gain

androgens

sex hormone, secreted by inner layer of adrenal cortex, weal testosterone, men and women, stimulates women sex drive

MSH

a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that controls the degree of pigmentation in melanocytes

common features endocrine glands

rich vascular supply, endicrine stimulation, negative feedback, hormone an protein/fat molecule

hormonal stimulus

by other hormones

neural stimulus

by nervous system

non-homrmonal chemical stimulation

chemical stimulation 9Ca or Glucose

most glands controlled by

negative fee back system
reverse any deviation from normal back to normal

hormones work

target organs thru body special hormone specific sensors

after hormone is with target area

affects cells in 1 of 3 ways, changes selective permeability target cell membrane, activatives or deactivates enzymes present, stimylates DNA to produce instructions for making particular enzyme

what are exocrine and endocrine made up of

epithelial cells

exocrine glands

have ducts, carry glands secretion to surface or body cavity

endocrine glands

ductless, hormones released intp blood vessels/circulation

posterior pituitary

fo not produce or make hormones
store and release 2 hormones that are made by hypothalamus

2 hormones stored in posterior pituitary

oxytocin(pitocin)
ADH=antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin

ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone

regulates adrenal glands
regulates production of cortisol (steroid hormone)

TSH thyroid stim. hormone

stimulates thyroid gland to increase secretions of thyroid hormone (thyrotropin)
controls growth of thyroid gland

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion

prevents water from being absorb leading to dehydration
large amount of urine output
low b/p
diabetes insipdus

ADH antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion

abnormal water retention
hypertension

thyroid gland

largest endocrine gland secretes thyroxin (T4) triodothyronine(T3) thyrocalcitonin(calcitonin)

fertilization

fallopian tube

Zygote

product of immediately feertilized ova up til 2 weeks

Embryo

2-8 weeks after fertilization

Fetus

greater than 8 weeks until birth

first stage labor

cervix dilating early 0-3 active 4-7 and transition 8-10

second stage labor

full dilation until birth

third stage labor

borth of baby until placenta delivered

uterine atony

uterus not contracting strong enough during labor to push baby thru birth canal lack of oxytocin or pitocin

glucocorticoid GC

hormone that influnces food metabolism, secreted by adrenal cortex

Graves disease

inherited possible immune system disorder by hyperthyroidism
bulging or protuding eyes

causes hypoglycemia

"Addison disease" too mcuh blood glucose concentration

myxedema

condition caused by deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults

cretinism

dwarfism caused by hyposecretion of the thyroid gland

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