Exploring Medical Language: Chap14

Created by CZambrano91 

Upgrade to
remove ads

periosteum

outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue

compact bone

dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum

cancellous (spongy) bone

contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone

endosteum

membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone

diaphysis

shaft of the long bone

epiphysis

end of each long bone

bone marrow

material found in the cavity of bones

red marrow

thick, blood like material found in flat bones and at the ends of long bones; location of blood cell formation

yellow marrow

soft, fatty material material found in the medullary cavity of long bones

maxilla

upper jaw bone

mandible

lower jawbone

vertebral column

made up of bone called vertabrae or vertebra through which the spinal cord runs. the vertebral comlumn prtoects the spinal cord, supports the head, and provides points of attachment for ribs and muscles

cervical vertebrae

first set of seven bones forming the neck (C1 to C7)

thoracic vertebrae

second set of 12 vertebrae. They articulate with 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine

lumbar vertebrae

third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine

sacrum

next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones

coccyx

four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone

lamina

part of the vertebral arch

clavicle

collarbone

scapula

shoulder blade

acromion process

extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder

sternum

breastbone

xiphoid process

lower portion of the sternum

humerus

upper arm bone

ulna and radius

lower arm bone

olecranon process

projection at the upper end of the ulna that forms the bony point of the elbow

carpal bones

wrist bones

metacarpal bones

hand bones

phalanges

finger and toe bones

pelvic bone, hip bone

made up of three bones fused together

ischium

lower, rear portion of the pelvis on which one sits

ilium

upper, wing-shaped part on each side of the pelvis

pubis

anterior portion of the pelvic bone

acetabulum

large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur

femur

upper leg bone

tibia and fibula

lower leg bones

patella

kneecap

tarsal bones

ankle bones

calcaneus

heel bone

metatarsal bones

foot bones

articular cartilage

smooth layer of gristle covering the contacting surface of joints

meniscus

crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee

intervertebral disk

cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine

pubic symphysis

cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones fuse together

synovia

fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities

bursa

fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another

ligament

flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint

tendon

a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone

aponeurosis

strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone

Skeletal muscles (striated muscle)

attached to the bones of the skeleton by tendons and make body motions possible

smooth muscle (unstriated muscle)

involuntary muscle found in internal organs

cardiac muscle (myocardium)

forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat

abduction

Movement away from the midline

adduction

movement toward the midline

inversion

turning inward

eversion

turning outward

extension

movement in which a limb is place in a straight position

flexion

movement in which a limb is bent

pronation

movement that turns the palm down

supination

movement that turns the palm up

rotation

turning around its own axis

carp/o

wrist (carpals)(combining form)

clavic/o, clavicul/o

clavicle (2 combining forms)

cost/o

rib (combining form)

crani/o

cranium (skull) (combining form)

femor/o

femur (combining form)

fibul/o

fibula (combining form)

humer/o

humerus (combining form)

ili/o

ilium (combining form)

ischi/o

ischium (combining form)

lumb/o

loin, lumbar region of the spine (combining form)

mandibul/o

mandible (combining form)

maxill/o

maxilla (combining form)

patell/o

patella (combing form)

pelv/i, pelv/o

pelvis, pelvic bone (2 combining forms)

phalang/o

phalanges (combining form)

pub/o

pubis (combining form)

rachi/o

spine, vertebral column (combining form)

radi/o

radius (combining form)

sacr/o (combining form)

sacrum

scapul/o

scapula (combining form)

spondyl/o, vertebr/o

vertebra (2 combining forms)

stern/o

sternum (combining form)

tars/o

tarsals (combing form)

tibi/o

tibia (combining form)

uln/o

ulna

aponeur/o

aponeurosis (combining form)

arthr/o

joint

burs/o

bursa (combining form)

chondr/o

cartilage (combining form)

disk/o

intervertebral disk (combining form)

menisc/o

meniscus (combining vowel)

synovi/o

synovia, synovial membrane (combining form)

ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o

tendon (3 combining forms)

ankyl/o

crooked, stiff, bent (combining form)

kinesi/o

movement, motion (combing form)

kyph/o

hump (combining form)

lamin/o

lamina (thin flat plate or layer) (combining form)

lord/o

bent forward (combining form)

myel/o

bone marrow (combining form)

my/o, myos/o

muscle (2 combining forms)

oste/o

bone (combining form)

petr/o

stone (combining form)

scoli/o

crooked, curved (combining form)

inter-

between (prefix)

supra-

above (prefix)

sym-, syn-

together, joined (2 prefixes)

-asthenia

weakness (suffix)

-clasia, -clasis, -clast

break (3 suffixes)

-desis

surgical fixation, fusion

-physis

growth (suffix)

-schisis

split, fissure (suffix)

ankylosis

abnormal condition of stiffness

arthritis

inflammation of a joint

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

chondromalacia

softening of cartilage

cranioschisis

fissure in the skull

diskitis

inflammation of an intervertebral disk

fibromyalgia

pain in the fibrous tissue of the muscle

kyphosis

abnormal condition of a hump

lordosis

abnormal condition of bending forward

maxillitis

inflammation of the maxilla

meniscitis

inflammation of the meniscus

myasthenia

muscle weakness

myeloma

tumor of the bone marrow

osteitis

inflammation of the bone

osteoarthritis

inflammation of the bone and joint

osteochondritis

inflammation of the bone and cartilage

osteofibroma

tumor of the bone and fibrous tissue

osteomalacia

softening of bones

osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone and bone marrow

osteopenia

abnormal reduction of bone mass

osteopetrosis

abnormal condition of stonelike bones

osteosarcoma

malignant tumor of the bone

polymyositis

inflammation of many muscles

rachischisis

fissure of the vertebral column

scoliosis

abnormal (lateral) curve (of the spine)

spondylarthritis

inflammation of the vertebral joints

spondylosis

abnormal condition of the vertabra

synoviosarcoma

malignant tumor of the synovial membrane

tendinitis

inflammation of the tendon

tenosynovitis

inflammation of the tendon and synovial membrane

bunion

abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

a common nerve entrapment disorder of the wrist caused by compression of the median nerve

colles fracture

a type of wrist fracture; the fracture is at the lower end of the radius, the distal fragment being displaced backward

exostosis

abnormal benign growth on the surface of a bone (also called spur)

fracture (fx)

broken bone

gout

disease in which an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood causes sodium urate crystals (trophi) to be deposited in the joints, producing arthritis

herniated disk

rupture of the intervertebral disk cartilage, which allows the contents to protrude through it, putting pressure on the spinal nerve roots; also called slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated intervertebral disk, or herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP)

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set