were documents that lessened one's time in purgatory
To make a formal retraction or disavowal of (a statement or belief to which one has previously committed oneself)
A proposition that is maintained by argument
The act of predestining or the condition of being predestined
A government ruled by or subject to religious authority
To declare (a deceased person) to be a saint and entitled to be fully honored as such
A settlement of differences in which each side makes concessions
In many Christian churches, the doctrine holding that the bread and wine of the Eucharist are transformed into the body and blood of Jesus, although their appearances remain the same
One that is made to bear the blame of others
A usually poor section of a city inhabited primarily by people of the same race, religion, or social background, often because of discrimination (outside of city in a gated area)
11. field preacher
Field preachers worked in rural areas to spread Calvinism. They primarily worked in the Netherlands.
a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void
a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification
Resolutely or dutifully firm and unwavering: "steadfast loyalty"
A native or inhabitant of Turkey
To make amends, as for a sin or fault: These crimes must be atoned for
To make or set apart as holy
woman that were noble took over duties for their husband i they were off at war - woman didn't receive husbands estate; oldest son does
19. Explain Wycliffe and Hus's contribution to church reform.
Wycliffe: said the Bible was the source of Christian truth (not church). His followers translated it so they did not rely on the clergy to read it to them. Students took his message and passed it onto Bohemia. He and his followers were persecuted.
Hus: He picked up Wycliffe's ideas in Bohemia; he preached heresy (religious ideas against the church) and was tried. They found him guilty and burned him.
*their ideas survived*
20. When did the Protestant Reformation begin? Where did the Protestant Reformation begin? Why?
Where: October 13, 1517, in Wittenberg, Saxony
Why:as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church, carried out by Western European Catholics who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice
21. Explain the abuses occurring in the church at this time. Who was pope at this time?
-popes had a lavish lifestyle
-hired painters and sculptors to beautify churches - to pay for this, church increased prices for marriage and baptisms
-they would sell indulgences: lessening the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory
-POPE LEO X
22. How did the use of indulgences change over time? (page 346)
-at first indulgences were given out for doing good deeds
-over time, people could buy indulgences from the church
23. How did many people react to the sale of indulgences? (page 346)
-they protested the ideas
-they demanded to go back to a simple way of life
-they stressed that you needed to study the bible
-rejected the worldliness of the Church
24. What role did Johann Tetzel play in the Protestant Reformation? (347)
-he was a priest from Wittenberg, Germany
-he was trying to raise $ for the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome
-he sold indulgences for $ that promised that the buyer and their relative will automatically go to heaven
-Martin Luther freaked out over this!
25. Who is Martin Luther? Why is he dissatisfied with the Church? How does he make his dissatisfactions known? Why is he significant?
-He was a German Monk and professor of theology
-he would cause protests against the church
-dissatisfied with the church
-against indulgences - said faith gets you to heaven
-he wrote 95 Theses and they were arguments against indulgences; they were printed and spread across Europe
-He is important because he rejected the church and his ideas were adopted in the Lutheran Churches
26. What role did the printing press play in the Reformation?
-it helped spread Luther's writings and ideas about the abuses of the church
27. Explain the importance of Diet of Worms.
-It was Luther's trip to Worms where he had to meet before the assembly of the German princes
-he thought he was going to defend his ideas/writings
-emperor ordered him to give up them up
-he refused and as declared an outlaw
28. Explain major concepts form Luther's teachings. (Be sure to use info from the primary source as well)
-rejected that good deeds were necessary for salvation
-Bible was sole source of relgious truth
-rejected that priests/Church hierarchy had special powers
-rejected 5 of the 7 sacraments b/c Bible didn't mention them
-allowed clergy to marry
29. Explain four reasons why people supported Luther.
1. thought of him as a hero - answer to ending corruption in church
2. supported him b/c of national loyalty
3. peasants hoped for social and economic change
4. accepted his teachings, renounced the authority of the pope
30. What led to peasant revolt? How did it end?
-rebels wanted to end serfdom and make changes in their harsh lives
-Luther wanted social order/respect for political authority
-the revolt got violent and Luther denounced it
-this helped the nobles stop it, and it left people homeless
31. Explain significance of Diet of Augsburg.
•were the meetings of the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire in the German city of Augsburg.
•There were 3 meetings that were a result of fighting between Catholic Emperor Charles V and Protestant Schmalkaldic League
(Reformation leader/priest from Switzerland)
Beliefs: the Bible is truth; anything not in the Bible is not truth.
Similarities among Calvin -he also rejected church rituals and stresses importance
Beliefs: believed salvation gained through faith/Bible only source
-preached predestination - idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation (there were saints and sinners)
Similarities among Zwingli and Grebel
Beliefs: Anabaptist, started the Swiss movement
Similarities among Calvin and Zwingli
35. What happened when Calvin's ideas took root throughout Europe? Cite specific examples.
1. reformers would go to Geneva and then go back to their home and spread Calvin
2. caused wars of religion across Europe
3. Germany - people faced opposition from Catholics and Lutherans
4. France - there were wars
5. Netherlands - organized a Dutch Reformed Church; sermons would be in the country so they would not get caught
6. Scotland - there was a religious rebellion & overthrew Catholic queen
36. Why were peasants attracted to the Anabaptists?
-Anabaptists - people who felt infants were too young to receive baptism & accept the Christian faith
-they were peaceful and wanted to get rid of private property
37. How did the English Reformation begin?
It started by in the day of Wycliffe calling for Church reform. Protestant ideas were influencing the Catholic Church. Henry VIII wanted to end papal control over the English church
38. Explain the significance of the Act of Supremacy.
Henry VIII was angry with the Pope and the Church b/c they would not annul his marriage so he could have another child with Anne. Therefore, he passed laws that took the Church from the Pope and put it under his control. Heas the supreme head on the Earth of the Church of England. Catholics did not like this and they were executed for treason (disloyalty).
was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor
Son of Henry VIII - monarch after him - religion - Protestant
Daughter of Henry VIII - monarch after him - religion - Catholic
Daughter of Henry VIII - monarch after him - religion - Catholic and Protestant
43. Was Henry VIII radical? How are his motivations different from Luther, Calvin, Grebel, and Zwingli?
Henry VIII - no he was not a religious radical. He rejected Protestant doctrine; he kept most Catholic forms of worship
44. Contrast Mary I with Elizabeth I.
Mary I was Catholic and become Queen; wanted to bring Catholim back to England. She would burn Protestant supporters. Elizabeth was Catholic and Protestant so she allowed a combination of both practices. She restored England back to Protestant and it was mainly Protestant.
45. Explain the Elizabethan Settlement.
-preserved Catholic ceremony/ritual
-monarch head of the Anglican Church
-used the Book of Common Prayer
-used English in church services instead of Latin
-accepted moderate Protestant doctrine
46. Why is Elizabeth's rule considered a Golden Age?
She helped England rise to the status of world power thanks to voyages of exploration and economic expansion, and the "English Renaissance" occurred, as English culture went through a particularly rich period, spearheaded by the plays of Shakespeare.
47. Who led the Counter Reformation? What were the goals?
1. revive the moral authority of the Church and stop Protestant movement
2. end corruption within the church
3. lead the Catholic Reformation
48. Explain the significance of the Council of Trent.
Started in 1545; Established direction of reform. Set penalties for corruption, created seminaries for priests and reaffirmed that faith and good works is necessary for salvation.
49. Roman Inquisition
The Roman Inquisition was a penal and judicial institution brought into being by the Catholic Church in mid-sixteenth century Italy as a response to the Protestant challenge in that country
50. Ignatius Of Loyola
(1491 - July 31, 1556) was a Spanish knight from a Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus and was its first Superior General
51. Teresa of Avilla
-she symbolized renewal of intense faith
-from a wealthy Spanish family
-joined the convent & didn't think it was strict enough
-started her own convent; lived in isolation, lived life praying/meditating, not much sleep/food
-she was asked to fix and reorganize convents & monasteries in Spain
52. Angela Merici
(21 March 1474 - 27 January 1540) was an Italian religious leader and saint. She founded the Order of Ursulines in 1535 in Brescia
54. Evaluate the effectiveness of the Counter Reformation.
-Rome was definitely more devout (religious) after it
-charity spread throughout Europe
-it slowed the Protestant movement and even helped some area become Catholic again
-After it, still there was a division --- South Europe = Catholic and North Europe = Protestant
55. According to Luther, how did the Catholic Church prevent itself from being reformed?
Luther said the Catholic Church prevented it from being reformed because of the indulgences.