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US v. Wade

Entitled to counsel at "critical stages" of the proceedings

Boykin v. Alabama

When entering a guilty plea, defendants must confirm that they are doing so knowingly and voluntarily

Brady v. United States

The state can "extend a benefit" to defendants who extend a similar benefit to the state (i.e. a plea of guilt in exchange for sparing the state the cost of the trial.)

North Carolina v. Alford

Plea bargains may be taken for the purpose of a lesser sentence when the defendant maintains his/her innocence

Santobello v. New York

Prosecutors must keep promises that are made in association with plea bargains

Bordenkircher v. Hayes

Prosecutors can use threats of harsher punishment to help secure plea bargains

Purkett v. Elem

As long as the judge accepts the attorney's reason for dismissal, Batson does not apply

Cooper v. Pate

Prisoner's have civil rights under Civil Rights Act of 1871

Wolff v. McDonnell

Inmates have the right to limited due process in disciplinary matters.
2a. Notified of complaint, fair hearing, limited confrontation of witnesses and assistance in preparation of the hearing
2b. Balanced with institutional safety and correctional goals

Cruz v. Beto

Prisons must provide opportunities for worship and cannot punish inmates with non-conventional religions or beliefs

Hudson v. Palmer

Allows for warrantless searches of prisoner's cells and the seizure of any contraband found in these searches

Daniels v. Williams

Prisoners can only sue for damages when the injury is inflicted intentionally--a prisoner's right to due process is not violated by negligence alone

Estelle v. Gamble

Deliberate indifference to medical needs constitutes the unnecessary and wanton infliction of pain

Rhodes v. Chapman

Double-celling does not necessarily constitute cruel and unusual punishment. Must evaluate the "totality of the circumstances"

Wilson v. Seiter

Prisoners must not only prove that the conditions constitute cruel and unusual punishment, but also that they are the result of "deliberate indifference"

Furman v. Georgia

The death penalty, as it was being administered at that time in the state of Georgia, violated the Eighth Amendment's prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment

Gregg v. Georgia

The death penalty does not violate the Eighth Amendment if and when procedural safeguards are in place:
2a. Bifurcated proceedings
2b. Mandatory consideration of aggravating and mitigating factors

Coker v. Georgia

The imposition of the death penalty for rape of an adult woman is disproportionate, and thus violates the Eighth Amendment
3a. The ruling suggests that the death penalty cannot be cumulative in cases where the offense in question did not result in the death of the victim
3b. The victim in this case was 16 years old at the time of the crime but still considered an adult

Kennedy v. Louisiana

Extends the Court's ruling in Coker to cases of a child
4a. Also taps into the Eighth Amendment's evolving standards of decency

McClesky v. Kemp

In order to establish discrimination in the application of the death penalty, appellants must prove discriminatory intent on the part of the decision-makers (judges, prosecutors, jurors) in the trial

Ford v. Wainwright

The imposition of the death penalty against the mentally ill, regardless of when the mental illness began, violates the Eighth Amendment insofar as it undermines both retribution and deterrence

Baze and Bowling v. Rees

Lethal injection does not violate the Eighth Amendment, despite the fact that improper administration of the drugs may result in pain and suffering
9a. States may still violate the Eighth Amendment if their protocols demonstrate insufficient consideration for the potential pain and suffering of the subject

Betts v. Brady

No guarantee to counsel in state courts unless the defendant could show that to be deprived of counsel would result in a denial of due process

Coleman v. Alabama

The right to counsel is extended to preliminary hearings

Mallory v. United States

A suspect must come before a judge "as soon as possible" following an arrest

Swain v. Alabama

If a defendant could establish that there was a pattern of discrimination in the jurisdiction, that would be a violation

Rummel v. Estelle

Legalized three-strikes laws

Lockyer v. Andrade

Two misdemeanors can count as strikes

Mistretta v. United States

Rejected challenges by defendants that the Sentencing Reform Act was unconstitutional because it violated the separation of powers doctrine

United States v. Booker

The Federal Sentencing guidelines were unconstitutional because they exposed defendants to sentences based on findings not presented to a jury and therefore violated the Sixth Amendments guarantee to a grand jury

Rita v. United States

judges who follow the Federal Sentencing Guidelines may be presumed to have acted reasonably

Perry v. Lynaugh

Cited a "lack of national consensus" on the issue of executing the mentally retarded and upheld the process

Herrera v. Collins

The Supreme Court ruled that a claim of factual innocence based on new evidence is not grounds for granting an evidentiary hearing or stay of execution

Johnson v. California

Temporary segregation in jails is acceptable if the prisoners' safety is at risk

Bell v. Wolfish

Ruled in favor of traditional strip searches as long as the reasons for the search "outweigh" the inmate's personal rights

Meachum v. Fano

Once a prisoner has been granted something that has a significant liberty value (e.g. probation, parole, good-time credit, placement in the general population), the liberty cannot be taken away without due process

Morrissey v. Brewer

Due process rights were granted to parolees

Reed v. Reed

Court extended Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause to women

Strickland v. Washington

Established the "objective standard of reasonableness." To prove inadequate representation by counsel a convicted defendant must:
1) Establish that errors with made
2) those errors changed results of the proceedings

Daniels v. Williams

prisoners can only sue for damages when the injury is inflicted intentionally a prisoners right to due process is not violated by negligence alone

Ruffin v. Commonwealth

Established the "hands-off" doctrine.

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