Earth Science Practice Test: Minerals

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natural, inorganic, crystalline, distinct chemical composition

What are the four criteria used to define a "mineral"?
artificial, organic, solid, distinct chemistry
natural, organic, crystalline, indistinct chemistry
natural, inorganic, crystalline, distinct chemical composition
none of these

electron

Which of these is not found in the nucleus of an atom?
proton
electron
positive charge
neutron

true

All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number.
True
False

false

All atoms of the same element have the same atomic mass.
True
False

false

Positive ions are atoms that have gained electrons during a chemical reaction.
True
False

protons

Atoms of the same element, sodium for example, have the same number of __________ in the nucleus.

atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, form negative and positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges

Ionic bonding is where __________.
-nuclei of two different atoms share electrons, and the resulting compound is tightly bonded by the very strong electronuclear bonds
-atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, form negative and positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges
-atoms of two different elements share electrons and protons; the resulting compound is bonded together by the strong binding energy of shared protons
-nuclei of bonding atoms exchange electrons; the resulting ions are bonded together by the attractive forces between the negative and positive nuclei

different number of neutrons, same number of protons

Which of these is correct for isotopes of an element?
different number of electrons, same number of neutrons
same number of electrons, different number of protons
different number of neutrons, same number of protons
different number of protons, same number of neutrons

streak

What physical property denotes the color of a powdered mineral?

hydrogen

the first and lightest element on the periodic chart is _________.

proton

massive, positively charged nuclear atomic particle is _________.

electron

least massive particle that occupies space in an atom outside the nucleus is _________.

nucleus

tiny, but very massive central part of an atom is ___________.

diamond

mineral that occupies the highest position (highest hardness) on Mohs scale of hardness is ________.

streak

the color of a mineral in powdered form is _________.

calcite

This readily reacts with acids such as dilute HCl

gold

This has a high specific gravity and a metallic luster

luster

light reflecting off the surface of a mineral is ________.

fracture

manner of a mineral's breaking where no flat planes are produced is _________.

biotite

Mineral: "dark" silicate, platy cleavage, one of the mica group

quartz

Mineral: hard, no cleavage, common mineral in sandstone and granite

pyrite

Mineral: fool's gold, brassy-yellow, metallic luster, used in making sulfuric acid

graphite

Mineral: native element mineral, very soft, used for pencil lead

orthoclase

Mineral: potassium feldspar, major mineral in the rock granite

hornblende

Mineral: "dark" silicate, cleavage at 60 and 120°, commonly found in some igneous rocks

same crystal structure but different chemistry

Which of the following is not true about the two minerals graphite and diamond?
same crystal structure but different chemistry
both are composed of carbon atoms
diamond is "harder"
same chemistry but different crystal structures

4 plane faces, each an equilateral triangle, 6 edges, 4 corners

Which describes the geometry of a tetrahedron?
8 plane faces, each an equilateral triangle, 12 edges, 6 corners
4 plane faces, each an equilateral triangle, 6 edges, 4 corners
6 plane faces, each a rectangle, 4 edges, 8 corners
6 plane faces, each a square, 12 edges, 8 corners

4 oxygen ions

Which are found surrounding the center of the Si-O tetrahedron?
6 oxygen ions
6 silicon ions
4 oxygen ions
4 silicon ions

contain iron and magnesium, black to dark-green in color

Which of the following is a characterization of ferromagnesian silicates?
contain iron and magnetite, dark in color, metallic luster
mostly clear and colorless, contain magnesium and aluminum
contain iron and magnesium, black to dark-green in color
contain magnetite and hematite, colorless to light green in color

clay

Mineral: sheets of tetrahedra

olivine

Mineral: isolated (island) tetrahedra

feldspar

Mineral: three-dimensional networks of tetrahedra

pyroxene

Mineral: single chains of tetrahedra

Sodium and calcium.

Plagioclase feldspars contain significant, variable percentages of which elements?
Iron and magnesium.
Sodium and sulfur.
Calcium and magnesium.
Sodium and calcium.

fibrous form of these minerals

What is the most likely reason why inhalation of asbestos dust promotes diseases such as glaucoma?
fibrous form of these minerals
the chemical composition of these minerals
blocky form of these minerals
all of these

dark color, specific gravity higher than quartz

Ferromagnesian minerals generally exhibit _________.
dark color, specific gravity higher than quartz
light color, non-metallic luster
light color, metallic luster
one perfect cleavage and are colorless

false

Orthoclase and plagioclase feldspars have quite different forms of cleavage.
True
False

Water naturally separates the cation Na from the anion Cl.

Why does the mineral halite dissolve in water?
Water acts as a solvent, reacting with halite and placing more Na and Cl onto the mineral.
Water naturally separates the cation Na from the anion Cl.
Na and Cl precipitate from water to form halite.
Water is corrosive, and is a weak acid to halite.

calcite

Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce an effervescence (a fizz)?
gypsum
calcite
plagioclase
dolomite

magnetite

Mineral: oxide mineral, ore mineral of iron

calcite

Mineral: carbonate mineral in limestone, used in the manufacture of cement

galena

Mineral: sulfide mineral, ore mineral of lead

gypsum

Mineral: sulfate mineral, used in plaster and plasterboard

greater than 3 but less than 7

According to the Mohs scale of hardness, what would be the range in hardness for a mineral that scratches calcite, but not quartz? In fact, quartz scratches the mineral.
greater than 5 but less than 7
greater than 4 but less than 6
greater than 7 but less than 10
greater than 3 but less than 7
less than 3
greater than 7

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